gradient descent
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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Jinze Wang ◽  
Yongli Ren ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Ke Deng

Factorization models have been successfully applied to the recommendation problems and have significant impact to both academia and industries in the field of Collaborative Filtering ( CF ). However, the intermediate data generated in factorization models’ decision making process (or training process , footprint ) have been overlooked even though they may provide rich information to further improve recommendations. In this article, we introduce the concept of Convergence Pattern, which records how ratings are learned step-by-step in factorization models in the field of CF. We show that the concept of Convergence Patternexists in both the model perspective (e.g., classical Matrix Factorization ( MF ) and deep-learning factorization) and the training (learning) perspective (e.g., stochastic gradient descent ( SGD ), alternating least squares ( ALS ), and Markov Chain Monte Carlo ( MCMC )). By utilizing the Convergence Pattern, we propose a prediction model to estimate the prediction reliability of missing ratings and then improve the quality of recommendations. Two applications have been investigated: (1) how to evaluate the reliability of predicted missing ratings and thus recommend those ratings with high reliability. (2) How to explore the estimated reliability to adjust the predicted ratings to further improve the predication accuracy. Extensive experiments have been conducted on several benchmark datasets on three recommendation tasks: decision-aware recommendation, rating predicted, and Top- N recommendation. The experiment results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed methods in various aspects.

Ahmad AL Smadi ◽  
Atif Mehmood ◽  
Ahed Abugabah ◽  
Eiad Almekhlafi ◽  
Ahmad Mohammad Al-smadi

<p>In computer vision, image classification is one of the potential image processing tasks. Nowadays, fish classification is a wide considered issue within the areas of machine learning and image segmentation. Moreover, it has been extended to a variety of domains, such as marketing strategies. This paper presents an effective fish classification method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The experiments were conducted on the new dataset of Bangladesh’s indigenous fish species with three kinds of splitting: 80-20%, 75-25%, and 70-30%. We provide a comprehensive comparison of several popular optimizers of CNN. In total, we perform a comparative analysis of 5 different state-of-the-art gradient descent-based optimizers, namely adaptive delta (AdaDelta), stochastic gradient descent (SGD), adaptive momentum (Adam), adaptive max pooling (Adamax), Root mean square propagation (Rmsprop), for CNN. Overall, the obtained experimental results show that Rmsprop, Adam, Adamax performed well compared to the other optimization techniques used, while AdaDelta and SGD performed the worst. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrated that Adam optimizer attained the best results in performance measures for 70-30% and 80-20% splitting experiments, while the Rmsprop optimizer attained the best results in terms of performance measures of 70-25% splitting experiments. Finally, the proposed model is then compared with state-of-the-art deep CNNs models. Therefore, the proposed model attained the best accuracy of 98.46% in enhancing the CNN ability in classification, among others.</p>

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 214
Kyuahn Kwon ◽  
Jaeyong Chung

Large-scale neural networks have attracted much attention for surprising results in various cognitive tasks such as object detection and image classification. However, the large number of weight parameters in the complex networks can be problematic when the models are deployed to embedded systems. In addition, the problems are exacerbated in emerging neuromorphic computers, where each weight parameter is stored within a synapse, the primary computational resource of the bio-inspired computers. We describe an effective way of reducing the parameters by a recursive tensor factorization method. Applying the singular value decomposition in a recursive manner decomposes a tensor that represents the weight parameters. Then, the tensor is approximated by algorithms minimizing the approximation error and the number of parameters. This process factorizes a given network, yielding a deeper, less dense, and weight-shared network with good initial weights, which can be fine-tuned by gradient descent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Xinyi Liao ◽  
Xiaomei Gu ◽  
Dejun Peng

Background: Many malaria infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Accurate classification of the proteins secreted by the malaria parasite, which are essential for the development of anti-malarial drugs, is essential. Objective: To accurately classify the proteins secreted by the malaria parasite. Methods: Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy of the prediction of plasmodium secreted proteins, we established a classification model MGAP-SGD. MonodikGap features (k=7) of the secreted proteins were extracted, and then the optimal features were selected by the AdaBoost method. Finally, based on the optimal set of secreted proteins, the model was used to predict the secreted proteins using the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithm. Results: Our model uses a 10-fold cross-validation set and independent test set in the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) classifier to validate the model, and the accuracy rates are 98.5859% and 97.973%, respectively. Conclusion: This also fully proves that the effectiveness and robustness of the prediction results of the MGAP-SGD model can meet the prediction needs of the secreted proteins of plasmodium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jan Knappmann ◽  
Henrik Schumacher ◽  
Daniel Steenebrügge ◽  
Heiko von der Mosel

Abstract We establish long-time existence for a projected Sobolev gradient flow of generalized integral Menger curvature in the Hilbert case and provide C 1 , 1 C^{1,1} -bounds in time for the solution that only depend on the initial curve. The self-avoidance property of integral Menger curvature guarantees that the knot class of the initial curve is preserved under the flow, and the projection ensures that each curve along the flow is parametrized with the same speed as the initial configuration. Finally, we describe how to simulate this flow numerically with substantially higher efficiency than in the corresponding numerical L 2 L^{2} gradient descent or other optimization methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yingjie Shi ◽  
Enlai Guo ◽  
Lianfa Bai ◽  
Jing Han

Atmospheric scattering caused by suspended particles in the air severely degrades the scene radiance. This paper proposes a method to remove haze by using a neural network that combines scene polarization information. The neural network is self-supervised and online globally optimization can be achieved by using the atmospheric transmission model and gradient descent. Therefore, the proposed method does not require any haze-free image as the constraint for neural network training. The proposed approach is far superior to supervised algorithms in the performance of dehazing and is highly robust to the scene. It is proved that this method can significantly improve the contrast of the original image, and the detailed information of the scene can be effectively enhanced.

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