scholarly journals Deep convolutional neural network-based system for fish classification

Ahmad AL Smadi ◽  
Atif Mehmood ◽  
Ahed Abugabah ◽  
Eiad Almekhlafi ◽  
Ahmad Mohammad Al-smadi

<p>In computer vision, image classification is one of the potential image processing tasks. Nowadays, fish classification is a wide considered issue within the areas of machine learning and image segmentation. Moreover, it has been extended to a variety of domains, such as marketing strategies. This paper presents an effective fish classification method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The experiments were conducted on the new dataset of Bangladesh’s indigenous fish species with three kinds of splitting: 80-20%, 75-25%, and 70-30%. We provide a comprehensive comparison of several popular optimizers of CNN. In total, we perform a comparative analysis of 5 different state-of-the-art gradient descent-based optimizers, namely adaptive delta (AdaDelta), stochastic gradient descent (SGD), adaptive momentum (Adam), adaptive max pooling (Adamax), Root mean square propagation (Rmsprop), for CNN. Overall, the obtained experimental results show that Rmsprop, Adam, Adamax performed well compared to the other optimization techniques used, while AdaDelta and SGD performed the worst. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrated that Adam optimizer attained the best results in performance measures for 70-30% and 80-20% splitting experiments, while the Rmsprop optimizer attained the best results in terms of performance measures of 70-25% splitting experiments. Finally, the proposed model is then compared with state-of-the-art deep CNNs models. Therefore, the proposed model attained the best accuracy of 98.46% in enhancing the CNN ability in classification, among others.</p>

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 427
Muhammad Yaqub ◽  
Jinchao Feng ◽  
M. Sultan Zia ◽  
Kaleem Arshid ◽  
Kebin Jia ◽  

Brain tumors have become a leading cause of death around the globe. The main reason for this epidemic is the difficulty conducting a timely diagnosis of the tumor. Fortunately, magnetic resonance images (MRI) are utilized to diagnose tumors in most cases. The performance of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) depends on many factors (i.e., weight initialization, optimization, batches and epochs, learning rate, activation function, loss function, and network topology), data quality, and specific combinations of these model attributes. When we deal with a segmentation or classification problem, utilizing a single optimizer is considered weak testing or validity unless the decision of the selection of an optimizer is backed up by a strong argument. Therefore, optimizer selection processes are considered important to validate the usage of a single optimizer in order to attain these decision problems. In this paper, we provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of popular optimizers of CNN to benchmark the segmentation for improvement. In detail, we perform a comparative analysis of 10 different state-of-the-art gradient descent-based optimizers, namely Adaptive Gradient (Adagrad), Adaptive Delta (AdaDelta), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Adaptive Momentum (Adam), Cyclic Learning Rate (CLR), Adaptive Max Pooling (Adamax), Root Mean Square Propagation (RMS Prop), Nesterov Adaptive Momentum (Nadam), and Nesterov accelerated gradient (NAG) for CNN. The experiments were performed on the BraTS2015 data set. The Adam optimizer had the best accuracy of 99.2% in enhancing the CNN ability in classification and segmentation.

Shyla Shyla ◽  
Vishal Bhatnagar ◽  
Vikram Bali ◽  
Shivani Bali

A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation &ndash;stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques

2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (18) ◽  
pp. 3908 ◽  
Jintae Kim ◽  
Shinhyeok Oh ◽  
Oh-Woog Kwon ◽  
Harksoo Kim

To generate proper responses to user queries, multi-turn chatbot models should selectively consider dialogue histories. However, previous chatbot models have simply concatenated or averaged vector representations of all previous utterances without considering contextual importance. To mitigate this problem, we propose a multi-turn chatbot model in which previous utterances participate in response generation using different weights. The proposed model calculates the contextual importance of previous utterances by using an attention mechanism. In addition, we propose a training method that uses two types of Wasserstein generative adversarial networks to improve the quality of responses. In experiments with the DailyDialog dataset, the proposed model outperformed the previous state-of-the-art models based on various performance measures.

2019 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Yi Lin ◽  
Honggang Zhang

In the era of Big Data, multi-instance learning, as a weakly supervised learning framework, has various applications since it is helpful to reduce the cost of the data-labeling process. Due to this weakly supervised setting, learning effective instance representation/embedding is challenging. To address this issue, we propose an instance-embedding regularizer that can boost the performance of both instance- and bag-embedding learning in a unified fashion. Specifically, the crux of the instance-embedding regularizer is to maximize correlation between instance-embedding and underlying instance-label similarities. The embedding-learning framework was implemented using a neural network and optimized in an end-to-end manner using stochastic gradient descent. In experiments, various applications were studied, and the results show that the proposed instance-embedding-regularization method is highly effective, having state-of-the-art performance.

2020 ◽  
Vol 34 (05) ◽  
pp. 9749-9756
Junnan Zhu ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Jiajun Zhang ◽  
Haoran Li ◽  
Chengqing Zong ◽  

Multimodal summarization with multimodal output (MSMO) is to generate a multimodal summary for a multimodal news report, which has been proven to effectively improve users' satisfaction. The existing MSMO methods are trained by the target of text modality, leading to the modality-bias problem that ignores the quality of model-selected image during training. To alleviate this problem, we propose a multimodal objective function with the guidance of multimodal reference to use the loss from the summary generation and the image selection. Due to the lack of multimodal reference data, we present two strategies, i.e., ROUGE-ranking and Order-ranking, to construct the multimodal reference by extending the text reference. Meanwhile, to better evaluate multimodal outputs, we propose a novel evaluation metric based on joint multimodal representation, projecting the model output and multimodal reference into a joint semantic space during evaluation. Experimental results have shown that our proposed model achieves the new state-of-the-art on both automatic and manual evaluation metrics. Besides, our proposed evaluation method can effectively improve the correlation with human judgments.

2014 ◽  
Vol 571-572 ◽  
pp. 717-720
De Kun Hu ◽  
Yong Hong Liu ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Gui Duo Duan

A deep Neural Network model was trained to classify the facial expression in unconstrained images, which comprises nine layers, including input layer, convolutional layer, pooling layer, fully connected layers and output layer. In order to optimize the model, rectified linear units for the nonlinear transformation, weights sharing for reducing the complexity, “mean” and “max” pooling for subsample, “dropout” for sparsity are applied in the forward processing. With large amounts of hard training faces, the model was trained via back propagation method with stochastic gradient descent. The results of shows the proposed model achieves excellent performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
A. Christoper Tamilmathi ◽  
P. L. Chithra

This paper introduces a novel deep learned quantization-based coding for 3D Airborne LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) point cloud (pcd) image (DLQCPCD). The raw pcd signals are sampled and transformed by applying the Nyquist signal sampling and Min-max signal transformation techniques, respectively for improving the efficiency of the training process. Then, the transformed signals are feed into the deep learned quantization module for compressing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this proposed DLQCPCD is the first deep learning-based model for 3D airborne LiDAR pcd compression. The functions of Mean Squared Error and Stochastic Gradient Descent optimization function enhance the quality of the decompressed image by 67.01 percent on average, compared to other functions. The model’s efficiency has been validated with established well-known compression techniques such as the 7-Zip, WinRAR, and tensor tucker decomposition algorithm on the three inconsistent airborne datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed model compresses every pcd image into constant 16 Number of Neurons of data and decompresses the image with approximately 160 dB of PSNR value, 174.46 s execution time with 0.6 s execution speed per instruction, and proved that it outperforms the other existing algorithms regarding space and time.

Penghui Wei ◽  
Wenji Mao ◽  
Guandan Chen

Analyzing public attitudes plays an important role in opinion mining systems. Stance detection aims to determine from a text whether its author is in favor of, against, or neutral towards a given target. One challenge of this task is that a text may not explicitly express an attitude towards the target, but existing approaches utilize target content alone to build models. Moreover, although weakly supervised approaches have been proposed to ease the burden of manually annotating largescale training data, such approaches are confronted with noisy labeling problem. To address the above two issues, in this paper, we propose a Topic-Aware Reinforced Model (TARM) for weakly supervised stance detection. Our model consists of two complementary components: (1) a detection network that incorporates target-related topic information into representation learning for identifying stance effectively; (2) a policy network that learns to eliminate noisy instances from auto-labeled data based on off-policy reinforcement learning. Two networks are alternately optimized to improve each other’s performances. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model TARM outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (S13) ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Mengying Li ◽  
Qishuai Diao ◽  
Hongfei Lin ◽  
Zhihao Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Biomedical document triage is the foundation of biomedical information extraction, which is important to precision medicine. Recently, some neural networks-based methods have been proposed to classify biomedical documents automatically. In the biomedical domain, documents are often very long and often contain very complicated sentences. However, the current methods still find it difficult to capture important features across sentences. Results In this paper, we propose a hierarchical attention-based capsule model for biomedical document triage. The proposed model effectively employs hierarchical attention mechanism and capsule networks to capture valuable features across sentences and construct a final latent feature representation for a document. We evaluated our model on three public corpora. Conclusions Experimental results showed that both hierarchical attention mechanism and capsule networks are helpful in biomedical document triage task. Our method proved itself highly competitive or superior compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

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