transmission model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Jaechul Lee ◽  
Cédric Killian ◽  
Sebastien Le Beux ◽  
Daniel Chillet

The energy consumption of manycore architectures is dominated by data movement, which calls for energy-efficient and high-bandwidth interconnects. To overcome the bandwidth limitation of electrical interconnects, integrated optics appear as a promising technology. However, it suffers from high power overhead related to low laser efficiency, which calls for the use of techniques and methods to improve its energy costs. Besides, approximate computing is emerging as an efficient method to reduce energy consumption and improve execution speed of embedded computing systems. It relies on allowing accuracy reduction on data at the cost of tolerable application output error. In this context, the work presented in this article exploits both features by defining approximate communications for error-tolerant applications. We propose a method to design realistic and scalable nanophotonic interconnect supporting approximate data transmission and power adaption according to the communication distance to improve the energy efficiency. For this purpose, the data can be sent by mixing low optical power signal and truncation for the Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the floating-point numbers, while the overall power is adapted according to the communication distance. We define two ranges of communications, short and long, which require only four power levels. This reduces area and power overhead to control the laser output power. A transmission model allows estimating the laser power according to the targeted BER and the number of truncated bits, while the optical network interface allows configuring, at runtime, the number of approximated and truncated bits and the laser output powers. We explore the energy efficiency provided by each communication scheme, and we investigate the error resilience of the benchmarks over several approximation and truncation schemes. The simulation results of ApproxBench applications show that, compared to an interconnect involving only robust communications, approximations in the optical transmission led to up to 53% laser power reduction with a limited degradation at the application level with less than 9% of output error. Finally, we show that our solution is scalable and leads to 10% reduction in the total energy consumption, 35× reduction in the laser driver size, and 10× reduction in the laser controller compared to state-of-the-art solution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 63 ◽  
pp. 103393
Quentin Richard ◽  
Marc Choisy ◽  
Thierry Lefèvre ◽  
Ramsès Djidjou-Demasse

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yanqiu Liu ◽  
Xiangong Hu ◽  
Mengxiang Chu ◽  
Hongbo Guo ◽  
Jingjing Yu ◽  

X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality in optical molecular imaging, which has attracted more attention and has been widely studied. In XLCT, the accuracy and operational efficiency of an optical transmission model play a decisive role in the rapid and accurate reconstruction of light sources. For simulation of optical transmission characteristics in XLCT, considering the limitations of the diffusion equation (DE) and the time and memory costs of simplified spherical harmonic approximation equation (SPN), a hybrid light transport model needs to be built. DE and SPN models are first-order and higher-order approximations of RTE, respectively. Due to the discontinuity of the regions using the DE and SPN models and the inconsistencies of the system matrix dimensions constructed by the two models in the solving process, the system matrix construction of a hybrid light transmission model is a problem to be solved. We provided a new finite element mesh regrouping strategy-based hybrid light transport model for XLCT. Firstly, based on the finite element mesh regrouping strategy, two separate meshes can be obtained. Thus, for DE and SPN models, the system matrixes and source weight matrixes can be calculated separately in two respective mesh systems. Meanwhile, some parallel computation strategy can be combined with finite element mesh regrouping strategy to further save the system matrix calculation time. Then, the two system matrixes with different dimensions were coupled though repeated nodes were processed according to the hybrid boundary conditions, the two meshes were combined into a regrouping mesh, and the hybrid optical transmission model was established. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the computational memory consumption than the previously proposed hybrid light transport model achieving good balance between computational accuracy and efficiency. The forward numerical simulation results showed that the proposed method had better transmission accuracy and achieved a balance between efficiency and accuracy. The reverse simulation results showed that the proposed method had superior location accuracy, morphological recovery capability, and image contrast capability in source reconstruction. In-vivo experiments verified the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 712
Wangang Zhu ◽  
Wei Sun ◽  
Hao Wu

The vibration data of the gearbox on a high-speed train was measured, and the vibration characteristics were analyzed in this paper. The dynamic stress of the gearbox under the internal and external excitation was examined by a railway vehicle dynamic model with a flexible gearbox and a flexible wheelset. The ideal 20th polygonal wear was considered, and dynamic stresses of the gearbox under different polygonal wear amplitudes were calculated. The gear transmission model was established to study the dynamic stress of the gearbox under the influence of the time-varying stiffness of the gear meshing. Based on the rigid–flexible coupling model, and considering the influence of wheel polygonization, gear meshing time-varying stiffness, and wheelset elastic deformation, the dynamic stress of the gearbox was investigated with consideration of the measured polygonal wear and measured rail excitation. The results show that the dynamic stress of the gearbox is dominated by the wheel polygonization. Moreover, not only the wheel polygonization excites the resonance of the gearbox, but also the flexible deformation of the wheelset leads to the deformation of the gearbox, which also increases the dynamic stress of the gearbox. Within the resonant bandwidth of the frequency, the amplitude of the dynamic stresses in the gearbox will increase considerably compared with the normal case.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Yan Long ◽  
Hongshan Zhao

Game theory has become an important tool to study the competition between oligopolistic enterprises. After combing the existing literature, it is found that there is no research combining two-stage game and nonlinear dynamics to analyze the competition between enterprises for advertising. Therefore, this paper establishes a two-stage game model to discuss the effect of the degree of firms’ advertising input on their profits. And the complexity of the system is analyzed using nonlinear dynamics. This paper analyzes and studies the dynamic game for two types of application network models: data transmission model and transportation network model. Under the time-gap ALOHA protocol, the noncooperative behavior of the insiders in the dynamic data transmission stochastic game is examined as well as the cooperative behavior. In this paper, the existence of Nash equilibrium and its solution algorithm are proved in the noncooperative case, and the “subgame consistency” of the cooperative solution (Shapley value) is discussed in the cooperative case, and the cooperative solution satisfying the subgame consistency is obtained by constructing the “allocation compensation procedure.” The cooperative solution is obtained by constructing the “allocation compensation procedure” to satisfy the subgame consistency. In this paper, we propose to classify the packets transmitted by the source nodes, and by changing the strategy of the source nodes at the states with different kinds of packets, we find that the equilibrium payment of the insider increases in the noncooperative game with the addition of the “wait” strategy. In the transportation dynamic network model, the problem of passenger flow distribution and the selection of service parameters of transportation companies are also studied, and a two-stage game theoretical model is proposed to solve the equilibrium price and optimal parameters under Wardrop’s criterion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2117589119
Benjamin Wong Wei Xiang ◽  
Wilfried A. A. Saron ◽  
James C. Stewart ◽  
Arthur Hain ◽  
Varsha Walvekar ◽  

Mosquito blood-feeding behavior is a key determinant of the epidemiology of dengue viruses (DENV), the most-prevalent mosquito-borne viruses. However, despite its importance, how DENV infection influences mosquito blood-feeding and, consequently, transmission remains unclear. Here, we developed a high-resolution, video-based assay to observe the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on mice. We then applied multivariate analysis on the high-throughput, unbiased data generated from the assay to ordinate behavioral parameters into complex behaviors. We showed that DENV infection increases mosquito attraction to the host and hinders its biting efficiency, the latter resulting in the infected mosquitoes biting more to reach similar blood repletion as uninfected mosquitoes. To examine how increased biting influences DENV transmission to the host, we established an in vivo transmission model with immuno-competent mice and demonstrated that successive short probes result in multiple transmissions. Finally, to determine how DENV-induced alterations of host-seeking and biting behaviors influence dengue epidemiology, we integrated the behavioral data within a mathematical model. We calculated that the number of infected hosts per infected mosquito, as determined by the reproduction rate, tripled when mosquito behavior was influenced by DENV infection. Taken together, this multidisciplinary study details how DENV infection modulates mosquito blood-feeding behavior to increase vector capacity, proportionally aggravating DENV epidemiology. By elucidating the contribution of mosquito behavioral alterations on DENV transmission to the host, these results will inform epidemiological modeling to tailor improved interventions against dengue.

Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Xuan Deng ◽  
Yueming Wang ◽  
Guicheng Han ◽  
Tianru Xue

Aiming at the problem wherein temperature inversion accuracy is unstable due to the major differences in atmospheric transmittance under various observation paths, a method for measuring radiation characteristics of an aircraft engine’s hot parts and skin using a cooled middle-wave infrared camera is proposed. Based on the analysis of the aircraft’s infrared radiation characteristics, the atmospheric transmission model of any observation path was revised, the absolute radiation correction model was established, and the temperature inversion equation was calculated. Then, we used the quasi-Newton method to calculate the skin temperature and discussed uncertainty sources. After the theoretical study, an outfield test was carried out. A middle-wave infrared camera with a wavelength of 3.7–4.8 μm was applied to the actual experimental observation of the turbofan civil aviation aircraft. The ground observation distance was 15 km, and the flying height was 3 km. When implementing temperature inversion with the method presented in this paper, the surface temperature of the aircraft engine hot parts was 381 K, the correction uncertainty was ±10 K, the surface temperature of the skin was 296 K, and the correction uncertainty was ±6 K. As the experiment showed, the method in this paper can effectively implement infrared target temperature inversion and provide a reference for the quantification of infrared data.

2022 ◽  
Max SY Lau ◽  
Carol Liu ◽  
Aaron Siegler ◽  
Patrick Sullivan ◽  
Lance A. Waller ◽  

Abstract Social distancing measures are effective in reducing overall community transmission but much remains unknown about how they have impacted finer-scale dynamics. In particular, much is unknown about how changes of contact patterns and other behaviors including adherence to social distancing, induced by these measures, may have impacted finer-scale transmission dynamics among different age groups. In this paper, we build a stochastic age-specific transmission model to systematically characterize the degree and variation of age-specific transmission dynamics, before and after lifting the lockdown in Georgia, USA. We perform Bayesian (missing-) data-augmentation model inference, leveraging reported age-specific case, seroprevalence and mortality data. We estimate that community-level transmissibility was reduced to 41.2% with 95% CI [39%, 43.8%] of the pre-lockdown level in about a week of the announcement of the shelter-in-place order. Although it subsequently increased after the lockdown was lifted, it only bounced back to 62% [58%, 67.2%] of the pre-lockdown level after about a month. We also find that during the lockdown susceptibility to infection increases with age. Specifically, relative to the oldest age group (>65+), susceptibility for the youngest age group (0-17 years) is 0.13 [0.09, 0.18], and it increases to 0.53 [0.49, 0.59] for 18-44 and 0.75 [0.68, 0.82] for 45- 64. More importantly, our results reveal clear changes of age-specific susceptibility (defined as average risk of getting infected during an infectious contact incorporating age-dependent behavioral factors) after the lockdown was lifted, with a trend largely consistent with reported age-specific adherence levels to social distancing and preventive measures. Specifically, the older groups (>45) (with the highest levels of adherence) appear to have the most significant reductions of susceptibility (e.g., post-lockdown susceptibility reduced to 31.6% [29.3%, 34%] of the estimate before lifting the lockdown for the 65+ group). Finally, we find heterogeneity in case reporting rates among different age groups, with the lowest rate occurring among the 0-18 group (9.7% [6.4%, 19%]). Our results provide a more fundamental understanding of the impacts of stringent lockdown measures, and finer evidence that other social distancing and preventive measures may be effective in reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. These results may be exploited to guide more effective implementations of these measures in many current settings (with low vaccination rate globally and emerging variants) and in future potential outbreaks of novel pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yingjie Shi ◽  
Enlai Guo ◽  
Lianfa Bai ◽  
Jing Han

Atmospheric scattering caused by suspended particles in the air severely degrades the scene radiance. This paper proposes a method to remove haze by using a neural network that combines scene polarization information. The neural network is self-supervised and online globally optimization can be achieved by using the atmospheric transmission model and gradient descent. Therefore, the proposed method does not require any haze-free image as the constraint for neural network training. The proposed approach is far superior to supervised algorithms in the performance of dehazing and is highly robust to the scene. It is proved that this method can significantly improve the contrast of the original image, and the detailed information of the scene can be effectively enhanced.

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