dorsal closure
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Author(s):  
L. Selvaggi ◽  
M. Ackermann ◽  
L. Pasakarnis ◽  
D. Brunner ◽  
C.M. Aegerter

Biology Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Byoungjoo Yoo ◽  
Hae-yoon Kim ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Weiping Shen ◽  
Ji Sun Jang ◽  
...  

Steroid hormones influence diverse biological processes throughout the animal life cycle, including metabolism, stress resistance, reproduction, and lifespan. In insects, the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is the central hormone regulator of molting and metamorphosis, and plays roles in tissue morphogenesis. For example, amnioserosa contraction, which is a major driving force in Drosophila dorsal closure (DC), is defective in embryos mutant for 20E biosynthesis. Here, we show that 20E signaling modulates the transcription of several DC participants in the amnioserosa and other dorsal tissues during late embryonic development, including zipper, which encodes for non-muscle myosin. Canonical ecdysone signaling typically involves the binding of Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and Ultraspiracle heterodimers to ecdysone-response elements (EcREs) within the promoters of responsive genes to drive expression. During DC, however, we provide evidence that 20E signaling instead acts in parallel to the JNK cascade via a direct interaction between EcR and the AP-1 transcription factor subunit, Jun, which together binds to genomic regions containing AP-1 binding sites but no EcREs to control gene expression. Our work demonstrates a novel mode of action for 20E signaling in Drosophila that likely functions beyond DC, and may provide further insights into mammalian steroid hormone receptor interactions with AP-1.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nabarun Nandy ◽  
Jagat Kumar Roy

AbstractCell signaling pathways involved in epithelial wound healing, show a lot of complexities when it comes to their regulation. Remarkably, a large proportion of these signaling pathways are triggered at the time of morphogenetic events which usually involve epithelial sheet fusions during embryonic development, such as the event of dorsal cloure in Drosophila embryos. One such conserved pathway in the wound healing process is the JNK-Dpp signaling pathway. Recent observations suggest that one such upstream regulator of JNK mediated apoptosis could be Rab11, a small Ras like GTPase, which is functionally associated with the membrane and cortical cytoskeletal organization of epithelial cells. UsingDrosophilaembryonic dorsal closure as a model of wound healing, we observed that a targeted expression of aRab11loss of function mutant in the dorso-lateral epidermis of fly embryos (tissue which extends contra-laterally in order to fill the intervening gap) undergoing dorsal closure leads to an ectopic expression of Caspase-3 and a concomitant up-regulation of the JNK-Dpp signaling. This resulted in the death of the dorso-lateral epithelial cells with a consequent embryonic lethality due to dorsal closure defects. Interestingly, a simultaneous knockdown ofwingless(another developmentally conserved gene) inRab11mutants resulted in a rescue of the lethal phenotype and also a significant level of successful completion of the dorsal closure process. In our experiments we suggest Rab11 could promote cross talk between the JNK-Dpp pathway and the canonicalwinglesspathway in the regulation of apoptosis in the dorsolateral epithelium of fly embryos undergoing dorsal closure.One Sentence SummaryRab11 functions through a conserved Wingless mediated JNK-Dpp pathway during embryonic dorsal closure.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Byoungjoo Yoo ◽  
Hae-yoon Kim ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Weiping Shen ◽  
Ji Sun Jang ◽  
...  

ABSTRACTSteroid hormones influence diverse biological processes throughout the animal life cycle, including metabolism, stress resistance, reproduction, and lifespan. In insects, the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is the central regulator of molting and metamorphosis, and has been shown to play roles in tissue morphogenesis. For example, amnioserosa contraction, which is a major driving force in Drosophila dorsal closure (DC), is defective in embryos mutant for 20E biosynthesis. Here, we show that 20E signaling modulates the transcription of several DC participants in the amnioserosa and other dorsal tissues during late embryonic development, including the zipper locus, which encodes for non-muscle myosin II heavy chain. Canonical 20E signaling typically involves the binding of Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and Ultraspiracle heterodimers to ecdysone-response elements (EcREs) within the promoters of ecdysone-responsive genes to drive their expression. During DC, we provide evidence that 20E signaling instead acts in parallel to the JNK cascade via a direct interaction between EcR and the AP-1 component, Jun, which together binds to genomic regions containing AP-1 binding sites but no EcREs to control gene expression. Our work demonstrates a novel mode of action for 20E signaling in Drosophila that likely functions beyond DC, and may provide further insights into mammalian steroid hormone receptor interactions with AP-1.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anwesha Guru ◽  
Surat Saravanan ◽  
Deepanshu Sharma ◽  
Maithreyi Narasimha

The contraction of the amnioserosa by apical constriction provides the major force for Drosophila dorsal closure. The nucleation, movement and dispersal of apicomedial actomyosin complexes generate pulsed constrictions during early dorsal closure whereas persistent apicomedial and circumapical actomyosin complexes drive the unpulsed constrictions that follow. What governs the spatiotemporal assembly of these distinct complexes, endows them with their pulsatile dynamics, and directs their motility remains unresolved. Here we identify an essential role for microtubule growth in regulating the timely contraction of the amnioserosa. We show that a symmetric cage of apical microtubules forms around the coalescing apicomedial myosin complex. An asymmetric tail of microtubules then trails the moving myosin complex and disperses as the myosin complex dissolves. Perturbing microtubule growth reduced the coalescence and movement of apicomedial myosin complexes and redistributed myosin and its activator, Rho kinase to the circumapical pool and altered the cell constriction and tissue contraction dynamics of the amnioserosa. We show that RhoGEF2, the activator of the Rho1 GTPase, is transiently associated with microtubule plus end binding protein EB1 and the apicomedial actomyosin complex. Our results suggest that microtubule growth from moving patronin platforms modulates actomyosin contractility through the spatiotemporal regulation of Rho1 activity. We propose that microtubule reorganisation enables a self-organising, mechanosensitive feedback loop that buffers the tissue against mechanical stresses by modulating actomyosin contractility.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. e0239357
Author(s):  
Junior J. West ◽  
Tony J. C. Harris

Cytohesin Arf-GEFs promote actin polymerization and protrusions of cultured cells, whereas the Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, antagonizes actomyosin networks in several developmental contexts. To reconcile these findings, we analyzed epidermal leading edge actin networks during Drosophila embryo dorsal closure. Here, Steppke is required for F-actin of the actomyosin cable and for actin-based protrusions. steppke mutant defects in the leading edge actin networks are associated with improper sealing of the dorsal midline, but are distinguishable from effects of myosin mis-regulation. Steppke localizes to leading edge cell-cell junctions with accumulations of the F-actin regulator Enabled emanating from either side. Enabled requires Steppke for full leading edge recruitment, and genetic interaction shows the proteins cooperate for dorsal closure. Inversely, Steppke over-expression induces ectopic, actin-rich, lamellar cell protrusions, an effect dependent on the Arf-GEF activity and PH domain of Steppke, but independent of Steppke recruitment to myosin-rich AJs via its coiled-coil domain. Thus, Steppke promotes actin polymerization and cell protrusions, effects that occur in conjunction with Steppke’s previously reported regulation of myosin contractility during dorsal closure.


2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 4249-4269
Author(s):  
Stephanie M. Fogerson ◽  
Richard D. Mortensen ◽  
Regan P. Moore ◽  
Hellen Y. Chiou ◽  
Neel K. Prabhu ◽  
...  

Cell sheet morphogenesis is essential for metazoan development and homeostasis of animal form – it contributes to developmental milestones including gastrulation, neural tube closure, heart and palate formation and to tissue maintenance during wound healing. Dorsal closure, a well-characterized stage in Drosophila embryogenesis and a model for cell sheet morphogenesis, is a remarkably robust process during which coordination of conserved gene expression patterns and signaling cascades regulate the cellular shape changes and movements. New ‘dorsal closure genes’ continue to be discovered due to advances in imaging and genetics. Here, we extend our previous study of the right arm of the 2nd chromosome to the left arm of the 2nd chromosome using the Bloomington deficiency kit’s set of large deletions, which collectively remove 98.9% of the genes on the left arm of chromosome two (2L) to identify ‘dorsal closure deficiencies’. We successfully screened 87.2% of the genes and identified diverse dorsal closure defects in embryos homozygous for 49 deficiencies, 27 of which delete no known dorsal closure gene. These homozygous deficiencies cause defects in cell shape, canthus formation and tissue dynamics. Within these deficiencies, we have identified pimples, odd-skipped, paired, and sloppy-paired 1 as dorsal closure genes on 2L that affect lateral epidermal cells. We will continue to identify novel ‘dorsal closure genes’ with further analysis. These forward genetic screens are expected to identify new processes and pathways that contribute to closure and links between pathways and structures already known to coordinate various aspects of closure.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Junior J. West ◽  
Tony J. C. Harris

AbstractCytohesin Arf-GEFs promote actin polymerization and protrusions of cultured cells, whereas the Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, antagonizes actomyosin networks in several developmental contexts. To reconcile these findings, we analyzed epidermal leading edge actin networks during Drosophila embryo dorsal closure. Here, Steppke is required for F-actin of the actomyosin cable and for actin-based protrusions. steppke mutant defects in the leading edge actin networks are associated with improper sealing of the dorsal midline, but are distinguishable from effects of myosin mis-regulation. Steppke localizes to leading edge cell-cell junctions with accumulations of the F-actin regulator Enabled emanating from either side. Enabled requires Steppke for full leading edge recruitment, and genetic interaction shows the proteins cooperate for dorsal closure. Steppke over-expression induces ectopic, actin-rich, lamellar cell protrusions, an effect dependent on the Arf-GEF activity and PH domain of Steppke, but independent of Steppke recruitment to myosin-rich AJs via its coiled-coil domain. Thus, Steppke promotes actin polymerization and cell protrusions, effects that occur in conjunction with Steppke’s previously reported regulation of myosin contractility during dorsal closure.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Francesco Atzeni ◽  
Laurynas Pasakarnis ◽  
Gabriella Mosca ◽  
Richard S. Smith ◽  
Christof M. Aegerter ◽  
...  

AbstractTissue morphogenesis integrates cell type-specific biochemistry and architecture, cellular force generation and mechanisms coordinating forces amongst neighbouring cells and tissues. We use finite element-based modelling to explore the interconnections at these multiple biological scales in embryonic dorsal closure, where pulsed actomyosin contractility in adjacent Amnioserosa (AS) cells powers the closure of an epidermis opening. Based on our in vivo observations, the model implements F-actin nucleation periodicity that is independent of MyoII activity. Our model reveals conditions, where depleting MyoII activity nevertheless indirectly affects oscillatory F-actin behaviour, without the need for biochemical feedback. In addition, it questions the previously proposed role of Dpp-mediated regulation of the patterned actomyosin dynamics in the AS tissue, suggesting them to be emergent. Tissue-specific Dpp interference supports the model’s prediction. The model further predicts that the mechanical properties of the surrounding epidermis tissue feed back on the shaping and patterning of the AS tissue. Finally, our model’s parameter space reproduces mutant phenotypes and provides predictions for their underlying cause. Our modelling approach thus reveals several unappreciated mechanistic properties of tissue morphogenesis.


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