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BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yunying Cao ◽  
Tingyu Shan ◽  
Hui Fang ◽  
Kangtai Sun ◽  
Wen Shi ◽  

Abstract Background Salt damage is an important abiotic stress that affects the growth and yield of maize worldwide. As an important member of the salt overly sensitive (SOS) signal transduction pathway, the SOS3 gene family participates in the transmission of stress signals and plays a vital role in improving the salt tolerance of plants. Results In this study, we identified 59 SOS3 genes in the maize B73 genome using bioinformatics methods and genome-wide analyses. SOS3 proteins were divided into 5 different subfamilies according to the phylogenetic relationships. A close relationship between the phylogenetic classification and intron mode was observed, with most SOS3 genes in the same group sharing common motifs and similar exon-intron structures in the corresponding genes. These genes were unequally distributed on five chromosomes of B73. A total of six SOS3 genes were identified as repeated genes, and 12 pairs of genes were proven to be segmentally duplicated genes, indicating that gene duplication may play an important role in the expansion of the SOS3 gene family. The expression analysis of 10 genes that were randomly selected from different subgroups suggested that all 10 genes were significantly differentially expressed within 48 h after salt treatment, of which eight SOS3 genes showed a significant decline while Zm00001d025938 and Zm00001d049665 did not. By observing the subcellular localization results, we found that most genes were expressed in chloroplasts while some genes were expressed in the cell membrane and nucleus. Conclusions Our study provides valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship and functional characteristics of the SOS3 gene family and lays the foundation for further study of the SOS3 gene family in the maize B73 genome.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 293
Maria Garofalo ◽  
Cecilia Pandini ◽  
Matteo Bordoni ◽  
Emanuela Jacchetti ◽  
Luca Diamanti ◽  

Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is one of the causative genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder. SOD1 aggregation contributes to ALS pathogenesis. A fraction of the protein is localized in the nucleus (nSOD1), where it seems to be involved in the regulation of genes participating in the oxidative stress response and DNA repair. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from sporadic ALS (sALS) patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 12) to perform RNA-sequencing experiments and differential expression analysis. Patients were stratified into groups with “high” and “low” levels of nSOD1. We obtained different gene expression patterns for high- and low-nSOD1 patients. Differentially expressed genes in high nSOD1 form a cluster similar to controls compared to the low-nSOD1 group. The pathways activated in high-nSOD1 patients are related to the upregulation of HSP70 molecular chaperones. We demonstrated that, in this condition, the DNA damage is reduced, even under oxidative stress conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of the nuclear localization of SOD1 as a protective mechanism in sALS patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 900
Taja Jeseničnik ◽  
Nataša Štajner ◽  
Sebastjan Radišek ◽  
Ajay Kumar Mishra ◽  
Katarina Košmelj ◽  

Verticillium nonalfalfae (V. nonalfalfae) is one of the most problematic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) pathogens, as the highly virulent fungal pathotypes cause severe annual yield losses due to infections of entire hop fields. In recent years, the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism has become one of the main areas of focus in plant—fungal pathogen interaction studies and has been implicated as one of the major contributors to fungal pathogenicity. MicroRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) have been identified in several important plant pathogenic fungi; however, to date, no milRNA has been reported in the V. nonalfalfae species. In the present study, using a high-throughput sequencing approach and extensive bioinformatics analysis, a total of 156 milRNA precursors were identified in the annotated V. nonalfalfae genome, and 27 of these milRNA precursors were selected as true milRNA candidates, with appropriate microRNA hairpin secondary structures. The stem-loop RT-qPCR assay was used for milRNA validation; a total of nine V. nonalfalfae milRNAs were detected, and their expression was confirmed. The milRNA expression patterns, determined by the absolute quantification approach, imply that milRNAs play an important role in the pathogenicity of highly virulent V. nonalfalfae pathotypes. Computational analysis predicted milRNA targets in the V. nonalfalfae genome and in the host hop transcriptome, and the activity of milRNA-mediated RNAi target cleavage was subsequently confirmed for two selected endogenous fungal target gene models using the 5′ RLM-RACE approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 891
Wenjie Yue ◽  
Haobin Zhang ◽  
Xuming Sun ◽  
Ning Su ◽  
Qi Zhao ◽  

Autophagy is an indispensable biological process and plays crucial roles in plant growth and plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This study systematically identified autophagy-related proteins (ATGs) in wheat and its diploid and tetraploid progenitors and investigated their genomic organization, structure characteristics, expression patterns, genetic variation, and regulation network. We identified a total of 77, 51, 29, and 30 ATGs in wheat, wild emmer, T. urartu and A. tauschii, respectively, and grouped them into 19 subfamilies. We found that these autophagy-related genes (ATGs) suffered various degrees of selection during the wheat’s domestication and breeding processes. The genetic variations in the promoter region of Ta2A_ATG8a were associated with differences in seed size, which might be artificially selected for during the domestication process of tetraploid wheat. Overexpression of TaVAMP727 improved the cold, drought, and salt stresses resistance of the transgenic Arabidopsis and wheat. It also promoted wheat heading by regulating the expression of most ATGs. Our findings demonstrate how ATGs regulate wheat plant development and improve abiotic stress resistance. The results presented here provide the basis for wheat breeding programs for selecting varieties of higher yield which are capable of growing in colder, drier, and saltier areas.

2022 ◽  
Anna Duenser ◽  
Pooja Singh ◽  
Laurene Alicia Lecaudey ◽  
Christian Sturmbauer ◽  
Craig Albertson ◽  

Studying instances of convergent evolution of novel phenotypes can shed light on the evolutionary constraints that shape morphological diversity. Cichlid fishes from the East African Great Lakes are a prime model to investigate convergent adaptations. However, most studies on cichlid craniofacial morphologies have primarily considered bony structures, while soft tissue adaptations have been less intensely scrutinised. A rare example of an exaggerated soft tissue phenotype is the formation of a snout flap. This tissue flap develops from the upper lip and has evolved in only one cichlid genus from Lake Malawi and one genus from Lake Tanganyika. To investigate the molecular basis of snout flap convergence, we used mRNA sequencing to compare two species with snout flap (Labeotropheus trewavasae and Ophthalmotilapia nasuta) to their close relatives without snout flaps (Tropheops tropheops and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis) from Lake Tanganyika and Malawi. Our analysis revealed a greater complexity of differential gene expression patterns underlying the snout flap in the younger adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi than in the older Lake Tanganyika radiation. We identified 201 genes that were repeatedly differentially expressed between species with and without the snout flap in both lakes, suggesting that the pathway that gives rise to snout flaps is evolutionarily constrained, even though the flaps play very different functions in each species. The convergently expressed genes are involved in proline and hydroxyproline metabolism, which have been linked to human skin and facial deformities. Additionally, we also found enrichment for transcription factor binding sites upstream of differentially expressed genes such as members of the FOX transcription factor family, especially foxf1 and foxa2, which also showed an increased expression in the flapped snout and are linked to nose morphogenesis in mammals, as well as ap4 (tfap4), a transcription factor showing reduced expression in the flapped snout with an unknown role in the development of craniofacial soft tissues. As genes involved in cichlids snout flap development are associated with many human mid-line facial dysmorphologies, our findings imply a conservation of genes involved in mid-line patterning across vastly distant evolutionary lineages of vertebrates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Jing Geng ◽  
Yanli Du ◽  
Qiang Zhao ◽  
Wenjing Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an essential crop with high economic value. The growth of this plant is sensitive to environmental stress. Heat shock factor (Hsf) is a family of antiretroviral transcription factors that regulate plant defense system against biotic and abiotic stress. To date, few studies have identified and bio-analyzed Hsfs in common bean. Results In this study, 30 Hsf transcription factors (PvHsf1–30) were identified from the PFAM database. The PvHsf1–30 belonged to 14 subfamilies with similar motifs, gene structure and cis-acting elements. The Hsf members in Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays) and common bean were classified into 14 subfamilies. Collinearity analysis showed that PvHsfs played a role in the regulation of responses to abiotic stress. The expression of PvHsfs varied across different tissues. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that most PvHsfs were differentially expressed under cold, heat, salt and heavy metal stress, indicating that PvHsfs might play different functions depending on the type of abiotic stress. Conclusions In this study, we identified 30 Hsf transcription factors and determined their location, motifs, gene structure, cis-elements, collinearity and expression patterns. It was found that PvHsfs regulates responses to abiotic stress in common bean. Thus, this study provides a basis for further analysis of the function of PvHsfs in the regulation of abiotic stress in common bean.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Jing Bin ◽  
Meilin Zhu ◽  
Huifen Ding ◽  
Zhouying Zai ◽  
Tingting Shi ◽  

Sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) is an evergreen woody plant that emits a floral aroma and is widely used in the landscape and fragrance industries. However, its application and cultivation regions are limited by cold stress. Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) family members are widely present in plants and participate in, and regulate, the defense processes of plants under various abiotic stress conditions, but now, the role of this family in the responses of O. fragrans to cold stress is still not clear. Here, 46 OfHSF members were identified in the O. fragrans genome and divided into three subfamilies on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis. The promoter regions of most OfHSFs contained many cis-acting elements involved in multiple hormonal and abiotic stresses. RNA-seq data revealed that most of OfHSF genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, and some OfHSF members were induced by cold stress. The qRT-PCR analysis identified four OfHSFs that were induced by both cold and heat stresses, in which OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 had contrary expression trends under cold stress conditions and their expression patterns both showed recovery tendencies after the cold stress. OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 localized to the nuclei and their expression patterns were also induced under multiple abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments, indicating that they play critical roles in responses to multiple stresses. Furthermore, after a cold treatment, transient expression revealed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of OfHSF11-transformed tobacco significantly increased, and the expression levels of cold-response regulatory gene NbDREB3, cold response gene NbLEA5 and ROS detoxification gene NbCAT were significantly inhibited, implying that OfHSF11 is a negative regulator of cold responses in O. fragrans. Our study contributes to the further functional characterization of OfHSFs and will be useful in developing improved cold-tolerant cultivars of O. fragrans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhijun Zhang ◽  
Bin Huang ◽  
Jialu Chen ◽  
Yang Jiao ◽  
Hui Guo ◽  

Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) are a new subfamily of plant lectins that has recently been recognized and plays an important role in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress response. Although moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically and industrially important bamboo worldwide, there has been no systematic identification of JRLs in this species. Here, we identified 25 JRL genes in moso bamboo, and these genes are unequally distributed among 10 genome scaffolds. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo JRLs were clustered into four JRL subgroups: I, II, V, and VII. Numerous stress-responsive and hormone-regulated cis-elements were detected in the upstream promoter regions of the JRLs. Genome collinearity analyses showed that the JRL genes of moso bamboo are more closely related to those of Brachypodium distachyon than to those of Oryza sativa and Zea mays. Sixty-four percent of the PeJRL genes are present as segmental and tandem duplicates. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that JRL genes in the same subgroup were significantly downregulated in response to salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments and significantly upregulated under low temperature, drought, and salt stress; they also exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Subcellular localization experiments revealed that PeJRL04 and PeJRL13 were localized to the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Three dimensional structure prediction and yeast two-hybrid assays were used to verify that PeJRL13 exists as a self-interacting homodimer in vivo. These findings provide an important reference for understanding the functions of specific moso bamboo JRL genes and for the effective selection of stress-related genes.

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