To rate uncertainties within anomaly detection course for large span cable-supported bridges, a probabilistic approach is developed based on confidence interval estimation of extreme value analytics. First, raw signals from structural health monitoring system are pre-processed, including missing data imputation using moving time window mean imputation approach and thermal response separation through multi-resolution wavelet-based method. Then, an energy index is extracted from time domain signals to enhance robust of detection performance. A resampling-based method, namely the bootstrap, is adopted herein for confidence interval estimation. Four confidence levels are defined for the anomaly trend detection in this study, namely 95%, 80%, 50%, and 20%. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed anomaly trend detection methodology is validated by using in-situ cable force measurements from the Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge. As a result, the four-level anomaly detection triggers are determined by using the confidence interval estimation based on cable force measurements in 2007, which are 58,671, 48,862, 42,499 and 39,035, respectively. Subsequently, three cases are presented, which are spike detection, overloading vehicle detection and snow disaster detection. Through the spike detection, it is verified that energy index is capable to tolerate signal spikes. Three overloading events are simulated to conduct overloading vehicle detections. As a result, the three overloading events are detected successfully associated with different confidences. Snow disaster is detected with a more than 80% confidence based on the field measurements during the snow storm time window.
All interactions of objects, humans, and machines with the physical world are via contact forces. For instance, objects placed on a table exert their gravitational forces, and the contact interactions via our hands/feet are guided by the sense of contact force felt by our skin. Thus, the ability to sense the contact forces can allow us to measure all these ubiquitous interactions, enabling a myriad of applications. Furthermore, force sensors are a critical requirement for safer surgeries, which require measuring complex contact forces experienced as a surgical instrument interacts with the surrounding tissues during the surgical procedure. However, with currently available discrete point-force sensors, which require a battery to sense the forces and communicate the readings wirelessly, these ubiquitous sensing and surgical sensing applications are not practical. This motivates the development of new force sensors that can sense, and communicate wirelessly without consuming significant power to enable a battery-free design. In this magazine article, we present WiForce, a low-power wireless force sensor utilizing a joint sensing-communication paradigm. That is, instead of having separate sensing and communication blocks, WiForce directly transduces the force measurements onto variations in wireless signals reflecting WiForce from the sensor. This novel trans-duction mechanism also allows WiForce to generalize easily to a length continuum, where we can detect as well as localize forces acting on the continuum. We fabricate and test our sensor prototype in different scenarios, including testing beneath a tissue phantom, and obtain sub-N sensing and sub-mm localizing accuracies (0.34 N and 0.6 mm, respectively).
Electroadhesion is a phenomenon ruled by many characteristic intrinsic parameters. To achieve a good adhesion, efficient and durable, a particular attention must be provided to the adhesion forces between the involved parts. In addition to the size and geometry of electrodes, parameters of materials such as dielectric constant, breakdown electric field, and Young’s modulus are key factors in the evaluation of electroadhesion efficiency for electrostrictive polymers and electroactive devices. By analyzing these material parameters, a method is proposed to justify the choice of polymer matrices that are fit to specific electroadhesion applications. Another purpose of this work aims to demonstrate a possibility of accurately measuring the electroadhesion force. This physical parameter has been usually estimated through equations instead, because of the complexity in setup implementation to achieve highly precise measure. Comparisons based on the parameters criterion reveal that besides the intrinsic properties of material, some other parameters relating to its physical phenomena (e.g., saturation of dipolar orientation under high electric field leads to decrease dielectric constant), or physical behavior of the system (i.e., surface roughness reduces the active electrode area) must be thoroughly considered. Experimental results pointed out that plasticized terpolymer leads boosted electroadhesion performance compared to the other counterparts, up to 100 times higher than conventional polymers. The developed materials show high potential in applications of active displacement control for electrostrictive actuation.
To determine whether use of a protective cover would affect temporospatial gait or ground reaction force (GRF) measurements obtained from dogs walking on a validated pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW).
5 healthy dogs.
In a crossover study design, all dogs were walked across a calibrated PSW with and without a protective cover in place in random order. Temporospatial gait data and GRFs obtained with and without the cover in place were compared.
No significant differences were identified in temporospatial gait measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place. The bias was low for all variables, and the 95% limits of agreement included 0. In contrast, significant differences were found between measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place for most GRFs, with measurements obtained with the cover in place significantly lower than those obtained without a cover.
Results suggested that for dogs walking over a PSW, GRFs, but not temporospatial gait variables, would be significantly lower if a protective cover was placed over the walkway, compared with values obtained without a cover in place.
AbstractHighly sensitive force measurements of a single microscopic particle with femto-Newton sensitivity have remained elusive owing to the existence of fundamental thermal noise. Now, researchers have proposed an optically controlled hydrodynamic manipulation method, which can measure the weak force of a single microscopic particle with femto-Newton sensitivity.