two phases
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Ahmed Elaraby ◽  
Ayman Taha

<p><span>A novel approach for multimodal liver image contrast enhancement is put forward in this paper. The proposed approach utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of liver as a guide to enhance the structures of computed tomography (CT) liver. The enhancement process consists of two phases: The first phase is the transformation of MRI and CT modalities to be in the same range. Then the histogram of CT liver is adjusted to match the histogram of MRI. In the second phase, an adaptive histogram equalization technique is presented by splitting the CT histogram into two sub-histograms and replacing their cumulative distribution functions with two smooths sigmoid. The subjective and objective assessments of experimental results indicated that the proposed approach yields better results. In addition, the image contrast is effectively enhanced as well as the mean brightness and details are well preserved.</span></p>

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. M. R. Cantano ◽  
L. C. Luchesi ◽  
J. T. Takata ◽  
P. F. Monticelli

Abstract Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species’ behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 312 ◽  
pp. 122994
Yuanjing Chen ◽  
Zengtong Deng ◽  
Qiangqiang Ren ◽  
Dejun Ren ◽  
Sheng Su ◽  

Rouhia Mohammed Sallam ◽  
Mahmoud Hussein ◽  
Hamdy M. Mousa

<span>Since data is available increasingly on the Internet, efforts are needed to develop and improve recommender systems to produce a list of possible favorite items. In this paper, we expand our work to enhance the accuracy of Arabic collaborative filtering by applying sentiment analysis to user reviews, we also addressed major problems of the current work by applying effective techniques to handle the scalability and sparsity problems. The proposed approach consists of two phases: the sentiment analysis and the recommendation phase. The sentiment analysis phase estimates sentiment scores using a special lexicon for the Arabic dataset. The item-based and singular value decomposition-based collaborative filtering are used in the second phase. Overall, our proposed approach improves the experiments’ results by reducing average of mean absolute and root mean squared errors using a large Arabic dataset consisting of 63,000 book reviews.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sayed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi ◽  
Nujhat Jahan ◽  
Nazia Sultana ◽  
Sharif-Al Hasan ◽  
Ashish Paul ◽  

The Government of Bangladesh imposed a movement control order as a mass quarantine strategy to control the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adherence to the home quarantine may put children at risk by missing routine vaccination. In this study, we investigated the impact of COVID-19 on child routine immunization in a rural area of Bangladesh and consider the broader implications. Data for this study comes from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of icddr,b with a population of 90,000 people residing in 16,000 households in 49 villages in a rural, coastal area of Southeast Bangladesh. We used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design which involved two phases between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020: first, we observed 258 outreach sessions of 86 EPI centers. We calculated the number of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) outreach sessions suspended and the number of children who missed their routine vaccination due to the COVID-19. We extrapolated the number of Bangladeshi children who missed their routine vaccination using Chakaria HDSS observations. Secondly, we conducted in-depth interviews to explain the quantitative results. The EPI outreach session (EOS) declined to 74.42% (95% CI 63.97–83.22), 10.45% (95% CI 5.00–18.94), and 3.45% (95% CI 1.00–9.75) from 2019 levels in March, April, and May 2020, respectively. By extrapolation, in Bangladesh, between March and May 2020, 3.2 million children missed their scheduled vaccination compared to 2019. Results from in-depth interviews showed that the unwillingness of villagers to hold EOS and the absenteeism of the vaccinators due to social distancing recommendations and lack of personal safety measures were the main reasons for the discontinuation of the EOS. Resuming EPI outreach sessions and introducing a special catch-up program is essential to prevent future outbreaks and deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases in Bangladesh and the countries where children missed their routine vaccination due to COVID-19. This health system failure should be considered a factor in all future pandemic preparedness plans.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Paweł Adamski ◽  
Wojciech Czerwonko ◽  
Dariusz Moszyński

The application of cobalt molybdenum nitrides as ammonia synthesis catalysts requires further development of the optimal promoter system, which enhances not only the activity but also the stability of the catalysts. To do so, elucidating the influence of the addition of alkali metals on the structural properties of the catalysts is essential. In this study, potassium-promoted cobalt molybdenum nitrides were synthesized by impregnation of the precursor CoMoO4·3/4H2O with aqueous KNO3 solution followed by ammonolysis. The catalysts were characterized with the use of XRD and BET methods, under two conditions: as obtained and after the thermal stability test. The catalytic activity in the synthesis of ammonia was examined at 450 °C, under 10 MPa. The thermal stability test was carried out by heating at 650 °C in the same apparatus. As a result of ammonolysis, mixtures of two phases: Co3Mo3N and Co2Mo3N were obtained. The phase concentrations were affected by potassium admixture. The catalytical activity increased for the most active catalyst by approximately 50% compared to non-promoted cobalt molybdenum nitrides. The thermal stability test resulted in a loss of activity, on average, of 30%. Deactivation was caused by the collapse of the porous structure, which is attributed to the conversion of the Co2Mo3N phase to the Co3Mo3N phase.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-68
Nuanphan Chaiyama ◽  
Nimnoul Kaewpila

<p style="text-align: justify;">The purposes of this study were to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills and to develop a life and career skills in the 21st century test for undergraduate students. This research employed a mixed-method study adopting an exploratory design: instrument development model to generate research tools. This study was divided into two phases; Phase 1 was to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills in 21st century, by using a qualitative method to analyze relevant documents; Phase 2 was the development of a life and career skills in 21st century test by adopting a quantitative method to collect data from students studying in 12 universities of the north-eastern region of Thailand via the test. In the second phase, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Results revealed that the skills consisted of 6 factors and 35 indicators, and the test comprised 105 items. The quality of the test has been examined by five expertise, the reliability of all test items is acceptable, and all 6 factors demonstrated good construct validity. Factor loadings of six factors were 0.7940 -1.7816. This study can be implemented to measure the life and career skills of undergraduate students in any university to obtain data for establishing a policy and plans for maximizing students’ potential to achieve their careers and a happy living in 21st century after their graduation.</p>

10.5006/3960 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Lisa Blanchard ◽  
Kasra Sotoudeh ◽  
H Toda ◽  
K. Hirayama ◽  
Hongbiao Dong

This paper is associated with a larger programme of research, studying the resistance to hydrogen-induced stress cracking (HISC) of a wrought and a hot isostatically-pressed (HIP) UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel (DSS), with respect to both the independent and interactive effects of the three key components of HISC: microstructure, stress/strain, and hydrogen. In the first part presented here, several material properties such as the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure, distribution and morphology/geometry of the two phases, i.e. ferrite and austenite, and their significance on hydrogen transport have been determined quantitatively, using X-ray computed tomography (CT) microstructural data analysis and modelling. This provided a foundation for the study to compare resistance to HISC initiation and propagation of the two DSSs with differing microstructures, using hydrogen permeation measurements, environmental fracture toughness testing of single-edge notched bend test specimens, in the Part 2 paper of this study [1].

2022 ◽  
Mohsen Kafi

<p>This is the first systematic study of the selection, promotion, and reception of translated fiction anywhere in New Zealand. The study has two phases. The first draws on the responses of 277 adult readers in Wellington to a questionnaire about their perceptions of translated fiction. The findings reveal that most Wellington readers say they enjoy reading books set in other cultures, but their actual reading is largely English-language oriented. While some respondents expressed a specific interest in reading translated fiction, most prioritised genre and content. Age and ethnicity correlate only weakly with perceptions of translated fiction, but knowledge of one or more second languages is a strong predictor of positive perceptions of translated fiction. The second phase of the study draws on seven semi-structured interviews with representatives from three major book-related entities in Wellington: New Zealand Festival’s Writers Week, Wellington City Libraries (WCL), and Unity Books. The interviews provided first-hand insights into each entity’s policies and practices for selecting and promoting translated fiction. Although its past and current coordinators speak highly of translated literature, Wellington’s Writers Week has seen a significant decline in the number of non-English-speaking writers in the last two decades. Similarly, Unity Books claims to treat all categories of books, including translated fiction, equally, but its commercial practice in fact prioritises certain other categories. Wellington City Libraries, on the other hand, has taken a proactive approach to the promotion of translated fiction, for example through blogs and physical displays. Combined with the survey data, the interview findings demonstrate both the complex nature of reading choices and the challenges of advocating for the enhanced visibility of translated fiction in a largely monolingual context. However, many signs also point to a growing recognition of translated fiction as an important element of eclectic reading. This recognition can lead to positive changes in the future.</p>

2022 ◽  
Fredericus HJ Van Loon ◽  
Harm J Scholten ◽  
Hendrikus HM Korsten ◽  
Angelique TM Dierick - van Daele ◽  
Arthur RA Bouwman

Aims: To lower the threshold for applying ultrasound (US) guidance during peripheral intravenous cannulation, nurses need to be trained and gain experience in using this technique. The primary outcome was to quantify the number of procedures novices require to perform before competency in US-guided peripheral intravenous cannulation was achieved. Materials and methods: A multicenter prospective observational study, divided into two phases after a theoretical training session: a hands-on training session and a supervised life-case training session. The number of US-guided peripheral intravenous cannulations a participant needed to perform in the life-case setting to become competent was the outcome of interest. Cusum analysis was used to determine the learning curve of each individual participant. Results: Forty-nine practitioners participated and performed 1855 procedures. First attempt cannulation success was 73% during the first procedure, but increased to 98% on the fortieth attempt (p<0.001). The overall first attempt success rate during this study was 93%. The cusum learning curve for each practitioner showed that a mean number of 34 procedures was required to achieve competency. Time needed to perform a procedure successfully decreased when more experience was achieved by the practitioner, from 14±3 minutes on first proce-dure to 3±1 minutes during the fortieth procedure (p<0.001). Conclusions: Competency in US-guided peripheral intravenous cannulation can be gained after following a fixed educational curriculum, resulting in an increased first attempt cannulation success as the number of performed procedures increased.

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