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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 46-52
Anatoly M. Bobreshov ◽  
Aleksey E. Elfimov ◽  
Vladislav A. Stepkin ◽  
Grigoriy K. Uskov

In this work the possibility of increasing the amplitude of ultra-short pulses and formation of a monocycle Gaussian by adding signals from several oscillators was investigated. For this purpose, the ring adders of Wilkinson design were used. The design of which has been chosen due to low losses and high input decoupling. The S-parameters of the adders with different geometrical parameters have been simulated in the frequency band up to 5 GHz. The obtained results coincided with the experimentally measured characteristics. The monopulse amplitude was increased and a bipolar pulse shape was formed by adding ultrashort pulses of equal and different polarities using the adders. This approach allows you to adjust the parameters of the output signal by adjusting the delays of the triggering signals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zhe Jiao ◽  
Jialing Yang ◽  
Xiaojuan Long ◽  
Yingfang Lu ◽  
Zongning Guo ◽  

Here, we developed a rapid, visual and double-checked Logic Gate detection platform for detection of pathogenic microorganisms by aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) in combination with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas). DNA light-up AIEgens (1,1,2,2-tetrakis[4-(2-bromo-ethoxy) phenyl]ethene, TTAPE) was non-emissive but the emission was turned on in the presence of large amount of DNA produced by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). When CRISPR/Cas12a was added, all long-stranded DNA were cut leading to the emission quenched. Thus, a method that can directly observe the emission changes with the naked eye has been successfully constructed. The detection is speedy within only 20 min, and has strong specificity to the target. The result can be judged by Logic Gate. Only when the output signal is (1,0), does it represent the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the test object. Finally, the method was applied to the detect pathogenic microorganisms in environmental water samples, which proved that this method has high selectivity, specificity and applicability for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental water samples.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 620
Valentina Palazzi ◽  
Luca Roselli ◽  
Manos M. Tentzeris ◽  
Paolo Mezzanotte ◽  
Federico Alimenti

This paper presents a novel passive Schottky-diode frequency doubler equipped with an on-off keying (OOK) modulation port to be used in harmonic transponders for both identification and sensing applications. The amplitude modulation of the second-harmonic output signal is achieved by driving a low-frequency MOSFET, which modifies the dc impedance termination of the doubler. Since the modulation signal is applied to the gate port of the transistor, no static current is drained. A proof-of-concept prototype was manufactured and tested, operating at 1.04 GHz. An on/off ratio of 23 dB was observed in the conversion loss of the doubler for an available input power of −10 dBm. The modulation port of the circuit was excited with a square wave (fm up to 15 MHz), and the measured sidebands in the spectrum featured a good agreement with the theory. Then, the doubler was connected to a harmonic antenna system and tested in a wireless experiment for fm up to 1 MHz, showing an excellent performance. Finally, an experiment was conducted where the output signal of the doubler was modulated by a reed switch used to measure the rotational speed of an electrical motor. This work opens the door to a new class of frequency doublers, suitable for ultra low-power harmonic transponders for identification and sensing applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 904 ◽  
pp. 43-49
Bai Xue Fu ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Zi Yuan Cheng ◽  
Yu Bao

Using ultrasonic time difference method to test automobile fuel consumption, the test accuracy mainly depends on the testing system timing accuracy and ultrasonic flow sensor output signal-to-noise ratio. At present, the timing accuracy of the single-chip can reach the level of picosecond, and the noise mixed in the output signal of the ultrasonic converter is the main factor affecting the accuracy of fuel consumption testing. When the receiving signal contains noise, it will cause the signal amplitude to fluctuate, making the measurement time error. The analysis of same-frequency noise, circuit noise and colored noise is carried out, and the feasible measures to eliminate noise are put forward to provide reference for accurate calculation of sound and development of high-precision automobile fuel consumption test instruments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1215 (1) ◽  
pp. 012003
D.A. Gontar ◽  
E.V. Dranitsyna

Abstract This paper proposes a method for compensating the temperature error in the FOG output signal using neural networks. One of the main advantages of the method lies in possibility for identification of complex dependencies without losing compensation accuracy at the boundaries of the temperature range.

Oleksandr Laptiev ◽  
Serhii Yevseiev ◽  
Larysa Hatsenko ◽  
Olena Daki ◽  
Vitaliy Ivanenko ◽  

The paper proposes a fundamentally new approach to the formulation of the problem of optimizing the discretization interval (frequency). The well-known traditional methods of restoring an analog signal from its discrete implementations consist of sequentially solving two problems: restoring the output signal from a discrete signal at the output of a digital block and restoring the input signal of an analog block from its output signal. However, this approach leads to methodical fallibility caused by interpolation when solving the first problem and by regularizing the equation when solving the second problem. The aim of the work is to develop a method for the signal discretization to minimize the fallibility of information recovery to determine the optimal discretization frequency.The proposed method for determining the optimal discretization rate makes it possible to exclude both components of the methodological fallibility in recovering information about the input signal. This was achieved due to the fact that to solve the reconstruction problem, instead of the known equation, a relation is used that connects the input signal of the analog block with the output discrete signal of the digital block.The proposed relation is devoid of instabilities inherent in the well-known equation. Therefore, when solving it, neither interpolation nor regularization is required, which means that there are no components of the methodological fallibility caused by the indicated operations. In addition, the proposed ratio provides a joint consideration of the properties of the interference in the output signal of the digital block and the frequency properties of the transforming operator, which allows minimizing the fallibility in restoring the input signal of the analog block and determining the optimal discretization frequency.A widespread contradiction in the field of signal information recovery from its discrete values has been investigated. A decrease in the discretization frequency below the optimal one leads to an increase in the approximation fallibility and the loss of some information about the input signal of the analog-to-digital signal processing device. At the same time, unjustified overestimation of the discretization rate, complicating the technical implementation of the device, is not useful, since not only does it not increase the information about the input signal, but, if necessary, its restoration leads to its decrease due to the increase in the effect of noise in the output signal on the recovery accuracy. input signal. The proposed method for signal discretization based on the minimum information recovery fallibility to determine the optimal discretization rate allows us to solve this contradiction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Artem Ihorovych Fironov ◽  
Vitaliy Viktorovych Levchenko

Access systems with face recognition is widely used today. They are used in many enterprises and institutes where it is necessary to control the flow of passing people.  Facially recognizable technical vision systems are important because they can be used to store specific individuals faces and use them for access control. As a result of analysis of same modern systems the variant of system there are additional functions is offered. The system consists of ESP-EYE module, with build-in wi-fi and Bluetooth modules, chip sensor camera “ OV2640” and LED display, which dasplays a notification for a person about granting or denying access, notifications are in two collors: geen and red respectively.. Also it has an emergency power supply in case of unforeseen situations. Wi-fi is used as a means of transmiting data from camera to the server. This transmition method of data transmition has several advantages over Bluetooth. It allows to the system to transfer data at a much higher speed and over a grater distance, it is also more secure, provides access to the internet and allows to control the system  remotely. All the listed advantages of this method of transmition give us a great variability in the operation and placement of the system. To recognize people system use a comparison method. It compares the person’s face with a database and, after processing it produces the result. To optimize and speed up this process, the system uses a method of image compression based on discrete wavelet transform. This method is the transmission of a signal through several filtres, usualy two. First, the signal is passed through a low-pass filter whis a pulse response g, resulting in an output signal in the form of a convolutional sum. At the same time the signal is decomposed by a high pass filter. The LPF gives an approximate shape of the output signal, and the HPF – the signal of difference or additional detail. Discrete wavelet transform in an oriented basis makes it possible to construct transformation matrices with a given number of filters ”m”, where “m” is in the general case a prime positive number. The simplest way to compare the two images is by substracting the brightness values of the two matrices and estimating the resulting matrix of differences using standard deviation. The use of standard deviation in combination with fiberboard in OB allows to speed up the process of face recognition in the system by discarding unncessary details, the absence of which minimaly harms the accuracy of the results. The advantages of this system are that it is less expensive, in compareson with existing analogs, less energy-consuming, easy to assemble and install, uses a relatively simple and at the same time quite accurate method of identidying a persons identity.

Guangbao Zhang ◽  
Shuting Hu ◽  
Xiaoqiang Jia

Although many whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) for the detection of Cd2+ have been developed over the years, most lack sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we developed a Cd2+ WCB with a negative feedback amplifier in P. putida KT2440. Based on the slope of the linear detection curve as a measure of sensitivity, WCB with negative feedback amplifier greatly increased the output signal of the reporter mCherry, resulting in 33% greater sensitivity than in an equivalent WCB without the negative feedback circuit. Moreover, WCB with negative feedback amplifier exhibited increased Cd2+ tolerance and a lower detection limit of 0.1 nM, a remarkable 400-fold improvement compared to the WCB without the negative feedback circuit, which is significantly below the World Health Organization standard of 27 nM (0.003 mg/L) for cadmium in drinking water. Due to the superior amplification of the output signal, WCB with negative feedback amplifier can provide a detectable signal in a much shorter time, and a fast response is highly preferable for real field applications. In addition, the WCB with negative feedback amplifier showed an unusually high specificity for Cd2+ compared to other metal ions, giving signals with other metals that were between 17.6 and 41.4 times weaker than with Cd2+. In summary, the negative feedback amplifier WCB designed in this work meets the requirements of Cd2+ detection with very high sensitivity and specificity, which also demonstrates that genetic negative feedback amplifiers are excellent tools for improving the performance of WCBs.

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