intramolecular cycloaddition
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nan Lu ◽  
Hui Liang ◽  
Chengxia Miao ◽  
Xiaozheng Lan ◽  
Ping Qian

The mechanism for DMAP-promoted [4 + 2]-annulation of prop-2-ynylsulfonium with isatoic anhydride is investigated using the M06-2X functional. The reaction comprises isomerization of prop-2-ynylsulfonium in stage 1. Stage 2 includes DMAP-promoted deprotonation, nucleophilic addition, ring opening, and decarboxylation. Three steps of intramolecular cycloaddition, DMAP-promoted protonation, and dealkylation occur in stage 3, generating methylated DMAP and neutral thioether, which undergo double-bond isomerization to yield 3-methylthio-4-quinolone. The ability of DMAP to promote the reaction lies in the barrier decrease for alkyne isomerization, deprotonation/protonation of allenes, and dealkylation as effective bases for transferring protons and methyl groups. The roles of prop-2-ynylsulfonium and isatoic anhydride were demonstrated to be C2 and C4 synthons via Multiwfn analysis on the frontier molecular orbital. An alternative path was also confirmed by the Mayer bond order of the vital transition states.

SynOpen ◽  
2021 ◽  
Kota Sathish ◽  
Sakkani Nagaraju ◽  
Dhurke Kashinath

A solvent dependent and highly regioselective [3+2]-cycloaddition reaction of isoxazole-styrenes and azomethine imines is reported under catalyst-free conditions furnishing a library of pyrazolone-spirooxindole hybrids. Regioselectivity for the isomeric structures were achieved in good yields by the reaction of isoxazole-styrene (1) and azomethine imine (2) in different solvents and temperature. The developed method was extended for the synthesis of tri-substituted dinitrogen-fused pyrazolones for the using 1,6-Michael addition reaction. Further, the isoxazole moiety was converted into carboxylic acid as a model study via ring opening

2021 ◽  
Yamei Zhao ◽  
MengDan Huo ◽  
HongJi Zhou

Abstract The DFT calculation of the B3LYP level was carried out to explore the reaction mechanism of the synthesis of spirocyclo[4, 5]decane skeleton by gold-catalyzed allenyl compounds. The more accurate energy under the CH3CN solvent in the experiment is calculated by the single point energy of the SMD model. Computational studies have shown that the reaction consists of three main steps: intramolecular cycloaddition of the end group carbon atoms of allenyl and vinyl groups, the semipinacol rearrangement process in which the four-membered ring is reconstructed into the five-membered ring, the elimination reaction releases the catalyst and obtains the product. The calculation results show that Zheng et al. reported that the gold-catalyzed synthesis reaction can easily occur under the experimental conditions due to its low activation free energy (12.42–16.79 kcal/mol). Furthermore, it was found that the MOMO(CH2)2 substituent has higher reactivity than the corresponding reactant of the phenyl substituent.

Synthesis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Xinjun Luan ◽  
Jingxun Yu

AbstractTransition-metal-catalyzed C–N bond formation is one of the most important pathways to synthesize N-heterocycles. Hydroxylamines can be transformed into a nucleophilic reagent to react with a carbon cation or coordinate with a transition metal; it can also become an electrophilic nitrogen source to react with arenes, alkenes, and alkynes. In this short review, the progress made on transition-metal-catalyzed cycloadditions with hydroxylamines as a nitrogen source is summarized.1 Introduction2 Cycloaddition To Form Aziridine Derivatives2.1 Intramolecular Cycloaddition To Form Aziridine Derivatives2.2 Intermolecular Cycloaddition To Form Aziridine Derivatives3 Cycloaddition To Form Indole Derivatives4 Cycloaddition To Form Other N-Heterocycles4.1 Aza-Heck-Type Amination Reactions4.2 Nitrene Insertion Amination Reactions4.3 Intramolecular Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Amination Reactions5 Conclusion and Outlook

Synthesis ◽  
2020 ◽  
Francesca Bartoccini ◽  
Giovanni Piersanti

The Uhle’s ketone and its derivatives are highly versatile intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of 3,4-fused tricyclic indole frameworks, i.e. indole alkaloids of the ergot family, that are found in various bioactive natural products and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the development of a convenient preparative method for this structural motif as well as its opportune/useful derivatization have been the subject of longstanding interest in the fields of synthetic organic chemistry and medicinal chemistry. Herein, we summarize recent and less recent methods for the preparation of Uhle’s ketone and its derivatives as well as its main reactivity towards the synthesis of bioactive substances. Regarding the preparation, it can be roughly classified into two categories: a) using 4-unfunctionalized and 4-functionalized indole derivatives as starting materials to construct a fused six-member ring, and b) constructing the indole ring through intramolecular cycloaddition. Principally, the reactivity of the cyclic Uhle’s ketone shown here is derived from the classical electrophilicity of the carbonyl carbon or the acidity of the α-hydrogen and, though less intensively investigated, chemical reactions that induce ring expansion to form novel ring skeletons.

Synthesis ◽  
2020 ◽  
Shoko Yamazaki ◽  
Zhichao Wang ◽  
Kentaro Iwata ◽  
Khotaro Katayama ◽  
Hirotaka Sugiura ◽  

AbstractInter- and intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of ethenetricarboxylates with styrenes and α-halostyrenes have been investigated. The reactions of ethenetricarboxylates with styrenes or α-bromostyrenes in the presence of SnCl4 or SnBr4 stereoselectively gave 2,4-cis-substituted cyclobutanes. The intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of a series of styrene-functionalized ethenetricarboxylate amides, including in situ generated derivatives, showed high diversity of reaction modes depending on the structures and substituents of the substrates. The regioselectivity and stereoselectivity of the reactions as well as reaction mechanisms were discussed based on the DFT calculations.

Synthesis ◽  
2020 ◽  
Marcelo Preite ◽  
Elies Molins ◽  
Ivonne Chávez ◽  
Mungalimane K. Amshumali ◽  
Cesar Morales-Verdejo ◽  

AbstractThis contribution describes an updated synthetic route to 3,6-dihydro-as-indacene along with full characterization of all inter­mediates. The title compound is prepared by Mannich condensation of 2-methylfuran with formaldehyde and dimethylamine hydrochloride, quaternization of the resulting amine with methyl iodide, and conversion into the ammonium hydroxide salt by treatment with silver oxide in water. Subsequent Hoffmann elimination and [6,6]-cycloaddition through pyrolysis produces a furanocyclophane, which after photooxidation, intramolecular cycloaddition, and dehydration with sodium carbonate affords 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,8-dione-as-indacene. Reduction of this diketone gives a mixture of alcohols, which after dehydration under slightly basic or acidic conditions produces 3,6-dihydro-as-indacene. The structure is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and all intermediates are characterized by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

2020 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Siow-Ping Tan ◽  
Mohd Azlan Nafiah

Abstract: A Lewis acid BF3•Et2O-mediated intramolecular cycloaddition reaction of mahanimbine (1) is described. Three cycloadducts, bicyclomahanimbine (2), cyclomahanimbine (3) and murrayazolinine (4) were obtained. The structural char-acterization of these compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. These compounds showed no cytotoxic activity against human MRC-5 cells (IC50 > 60 μg/mL). Compound 3 showed the highest inhibition cytotoxic effects against HeLa and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10.0 and 28.7 μg/mL, respectively. This strategy opens a new approach for the synthesis of biologically significant cyclic monoterpenoid pyrano[3,2-a]carbazole alkaloids

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