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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ashley Whillans ◽  
Colin West

Abstract Poverty entails more than a scarcity of material resources—it also involves a shortage of time. To examine the causal benefits of reducing time poverty, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment over six consecutive weeks in an urban slum in Kenya with a sample of working mothers, a population who is especially likely to experience severe time poverty. Participants received vouchers for services designed to reduce their burden of unpaid labor. We compared the effect of these vouchers against equivalently valued unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) and a neutral control condition. In contrast to our pre-registered hypotheses, a pre-registered Bayesian ANCOVA indicated that the time-saving, UCT, and control conditions led to similar increases in subjective well-being, reductions in perceived stress, and decreases in relationship conflict (Cohen’s d’s ranged from 0.25 to 0.85 during the treatment weeks and from 0.21 to 0.36 at the endline). Exploratory analyses revealed that the time-saving vouchers and UCTs produced these benefits through distinct psychological pathways. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for economic development initiatives. Protocol registration The Stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 27/06/2019. The protocol, as accepted by Nature Human Behaviour, can be found at

2022 ◽  
Yuki Saito ◽  
Tomoya Ishida ◽  
Yoshiaki Kataoka ◽  
Ryo Takeda ◽  
Shigeru Tadano ◽  

Abstract Background: Locomotive syndrome (LS) is a condition where a person requires nursing care services due to problems with locomotive abilities and musculoskeletal systems. Individuals with LS have a reduced walking speed compared to those without LS. However, differences in lower-limb kinematics and during walking between individuals with and without LS are not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of gait kinematics using wearable sensors for individuals with LS.Methods: We assessed 125 people aged 65 years and older who utilized a public health promotion facility. The participants were grouped into Non-LS, LS-stage 1, LS-stage 2 (large number indicate worse locomotive ability) based on 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25). Spatiotemporal parameters and lower-limb kinematics during 10-m walking test were analyzed by 7-inertia-sensors based motion analysis system. Peak joint angles during stance and swing phase as well as gait speed, cadence and step length were compared among all groups.Results: The number of each LS stage was 69, 33, 23 for Non-LS, LS-stage 1, LS-stage 2, respectively. LS-stage2 group showed significantly smaller peak hip extension angle, hip flexion angle and knee flexion angle than Non-LS group (hip extension: Non-LS: 9.5 ± 5.3°, LS-stage 2: 4.2 ± 8.2°, P = 0.002; hip flexion: No-LS: 34.2 ± 8.8°, LS-stage 2: 28.5 ± 9.5°, P = 0.026; knee flexion: Non-LS: 65.2 ± 18.7°, LS-stage 2: 50.6 ± 18.5°, P = 0.005). LS-stage 1 and LS-stage 2 groups showed significantly slower gait speed than Non-LS group (Non-LS 1.3 ± 0.2 m/s, LS-stage1 1.2 ± 0.2 m/s, LS-stage2 1.1 ± 0.2 m/s, P < 0.001).Conclusions: LS-stage2 group showed significantly different lower-limb kinematics compared with Non-LS group including smaller hip extension, hip flexion and knee flexion. The intervention based on these kinematic characteristics measured by wearable sensors would be useful to improve the locomotive ability for individuals classified LS-stage2.

Jill J. Savla ◽  
Mary E. Putt ◽  
Jing Huang ◽  
Samuel Parry ◽  
Julie S. Moldenhauer ◽  

BACKGROUND Children with single ventricle heart disease have significant morbidity and mortality. The maternal–fetal environment (MFE) may adversely impact outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that impaired MFE would be associated with an increased risk of death after stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a retrospective cohort study of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (and anatomic variants) who underwent stage 1 Norwood reconstruction between 2008 and 2018. Impaired MFE was defined as maternal gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and/or smoking during pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between impaired MFE and death while adjusting for confounders. Hospital length of stay was assessed with the competing risk of in‐hospital death. In 273 children, the median age at stage 1 Norwood reconstruction was 4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3–6 days). A total of 72 children (26%) were exposed to an impaired MFE; they had more preterm births (18% versus 7%) and a greater percentage with low birth weights <2.5 kg (18% versus 4%) than those without impaired MFE. Impaired MFE was associated with a higher risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 6.05; 95% CI, 3.59–10.21; P <0.001) after adjusting for age at surgery, Hispanic ethnicity, genetic syndrome, cardiac diagnosis, surgeon, and birth era. Children with impaired MFE had almost double the risk of prolonged hospital stay (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.41–2.70; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Children exposed to an impaired MFE had a higher risk of death following stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. Prenatal exposures are potentially modifiable factors that can be targeted to improve outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nan Lu ◽  
Hui Liang ◽  
Chengxia Miao ◽  
Xiaozheng Lan ◽  
Ping Qian

The mechanism for DMAP-promoted [4 + 2]-annulation of prop-2-ynylsulfonium with isatoic anhydride is investigated using the M06-2X functional. The reaction comprises isomerization of prop-2-ynylsulfonium in stage 1. Stage 2 includes DMAP-promoted deprotonation, nucleophilic addition, ring opening, and decarboxylation. Three steps of intramolecular cycloaddition, DMAP-promoted protonation, and dealkylation occur in stage 3, generating methylated DMAP and neutral thioether, which undergo double-bond isomerization to yield 3-methylthio-4-quinolone. The ability of DMAP to promote the reaction lies in the barrier decrease for alkyne isomerization, deprotonation/protonation of allenes, and dealkylation as effective bases for transferring protons and methyl groups. The roles of prop-2-ynylsulfonium and isatoic anhydride were demonstrated to be C2 and C4 synthons via Multiwfn analysis on the frontier molecular orbital. An alternative path was also confirmed by the Mayer bond order of the vital transition states.

2022 ◽  
Alireza N Arabestani ◽  
Arman Ai ◽  
Nayer Sari Motlagh ◽  
Sina Naghibi Irvani ◽  
Mahdi Arabestanino ◽  

Abstract Background The global research shows that people suffer from a variety of sleep disorders and human actions are the result of neuronal function inside his brain, the feedback of this function can be received and processed as a signal emitted from the surface of the skull. EEG device can receive and record brain signals. Researchers have used a variety of methods to obtain and pre-process signals, extract and reduce the characteristics and types of classifiers in various studies. Research shows that there are three general states of wakefulness (stage 1 + REM sleep) and (stage 2 + deep sleep) separated by the EEG signal. Methods The study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 740 articles were found from scientific literature databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Wiley Online Library ). After all exclusions, a final total of 64 articles were included in this review. The randomized controlled trials that have assessed at least one therapeutic outcome measured before and after intervention were included in the final analysis. Results A total of 64 studies were identified at the screening step. In the identification phase, total of 11 records were excluded from the further assessment and 53 records were entered into the screening phase in which Clinical Trial, Review, Books, Editorial were excluded from the review. In the eligibility stage, 49 records remained in the study where total of 34 studies were included for detailed review. Due to the heterogeneities in the available variables as well as the target aspects, the authors decided to review the studies comprehensively. Conclusions However, due to some concerns about its effectiveness, more targeted experiments are needed to identify more accurate targets and pathways responsible for the metabolism of its brain signals.

Yi-Jia Jiang ◽  
Xiu-Ming Xi ◽  
Hui-Miao Jia ◽  
Xi Zheng ◽  
Mei-Ping Wang ◽  

Abstract Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the attributable mortality of new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods The data in the present study were derived from a multi-center, prospective cohort study in China that was performed at 18 Chinese ICUs. A propensity-matched analysis was performed between matched patients with and without AKI selected from all eligible patients to estimate the attributable mortality of new-onset AKI. Results A total of 2872 critically ill adult patients were eligible. The incidence of new-onset AKI was 29.1% (n = 837). After propensity score matching, 788 patients with AKI were matched 1:1 with 788 controls (patients without AKI). Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher among the patients with AKI than among their matched controls (25.5% versus 17.4%, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis in terms of AKI classification showed that there was no significant difference (p = 0.509) in 30-day mortality between patients with stage 1 AKI and their matched controls. The attributable mortality values of stage 2 and stage 3 AKI were 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6–21.8%, p = 0.013] and 16.1% (95% CI 8.2–23.8%, p < 0.001), respectively. The attributable mortality of persistent AKI was 15.7% (95% CI 8.8–22.4%, p = 0.001), while no observable difference in 30-day mortality was identified between transient AKI patients and their matched non-AKI controls (p = 0.229). Conclusion The absolute excess 30-day mortality that is statistically attributable to new-onset AKI is substantial (8.1%) among general ICU patients. However, neither stage 1 AKI nor transient AKI increases 30-day mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Virginia M. Artegoitia ◽  
J. W. Newman ◽  
A. P. Foote ◽  
S. D. Shackelford ◽  
D. A. King ◽  

AbstractThe inter-cattle growth variations stem from the interaction of many metabolic processes making animal selection difficult. We hypothesized that growth could be predicted using metabolomics. Urinary biomarkers of cattle feed efficiency were explored using mass spectrometry-based untargeted and targeted metabolomics. Feed intake and weight-gain was measured in steers (n = 75) on forage-based growing rations (stage-1, 84 days) followed by high-concentrate finishing rations (stage-2, 84 days). Urine from days 0, 21, 42, 63, and 83 in each stage were analyzed from steers with the greater (n = 14) and least (n = 14) average-daily-gain (ADG) and comparable dry-matter-intake (DMI; within 0.32 SD of the mean). Steers were slaughtered after stage-2. Adjusted fat-thickness and carcass-yield-grade increased in greater-ADG-cattle selected in stage-1, but carcass traits did not differ between ADG-selected in stage-2. Overall 85 untargeted metabolites segregated greater- and least-ADG animals, with overlap across diets (both stages) and breed type, despite sampling time effects. Total 18-bile acids (BAs) and 5-steroids were quantified and associated with performance and carcass quality across ADG-classification depending on the stage. Stepwise logistic regression of urinary BA and steroids had > 90% accuracy identifying efficient-ADG-steers. Urine metabolomics provides new insight into the physiological mechanisms and potential biomarkers for feed efficiency.

C-M Kuball ◽  
B Uhe ◽  
G Meschut ◽  
M Merklein

Mechanical joining technologies like self-piercing riveting are gaining importance with regard to environmental protection, as they enable multi-material design and lightweight construction. A new approach is the use of high nitrogen steel as rivet material, which allows to omit the usually necessary heat treatment and coating and thus leads to a shortening of the process chain. Due to the high strain hardening, however, high tool loads must be expected. Thus, appropriate forming strategies are needed. Within this contribution, the influence of applying different temperatures for each forming stage in a two-stage rivet forming process using the high nitrogen steel 1.3815 is investigated. The findings provide a basic understanding of the influence of the temperature management when forming high nitrogen steel. For this purpose, the rivets are not formed at the same temperature in each stage, but an elevated temperature is applied selectively. Different process routes are investigated. First, cups are manufactured in stage 1 at room temperature, followed by stage 2 at 200°C. Second, cups are formed in stage 1 at 200°C and used for stage 2 at room temperature. By comparing the findings with results when applying the same temperature in both stages, it is shown that the temperature during the first forming operation has an effect on the forming behaviour during the second forming stage. The required forming forces and the resulting rivet hardness can be influenced by process-adapted temperature application. Furthermore, the causes for the temperature impact on the residual cup thickness in stage 1 are evaluated by a cause and effect analysis, which provides a deeper process understanding. The thermal expansion of the tool and the billet as well as the improved forming behaviour at 200°C are identified as the main influencing causes on the achieved residual cup thickness.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa ◽  
Edmilson Dias de Freitas ◽  
Maria de Fátima Andrade ◽  
Eduardo Landulfo

In this work, the possible benefits obtained due to the implementation of evaporative emissions control measures, originating from vehicle fueling processes, on ozone concentrations are verified. The measures studied are: (1) control at the moment when the tank trucks supply the fuel to the gas stations (Stage 1); (2) control at the moment when the vehicles are refueled at the gas stations, through a device installed in the pumps (Stage 2); (3) same as the previous control, but through a device installed in the vehicles (ORVR). The effects of these procedures were analyzed using numerical modeling with the VEIN and WRF/Chem models for a base case in 2018 and different emission scenarios, both in 2018 and 2031. The results obtained for 2018 show that the implementation of Stages 1 and 2 would reduce HCNM emissions by 47.96%, with a consequent reduction of 19.9% in the average concentrations of tropospheric ozone. For 2031, the greatest reductions in ozone concentrations were obtained with the scenario without ORVR, and with Stage 1 and Stage 2 (64.65% reduction in HCNM emissions and 31.93% in ozone), followed by the scenario with ORVR and with Stage 1 and Stage 2 (64.39% reduction in HCNM emissions and 32.98% in ozone concentrations).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Stella Trompet ◽  
Iris Postmus ◽  
Helen R. Warren ◽  
Raymond Noordam ◽  
Roelof A. J. Smit ◽  

Background: The pharmacogenetic effect on cardiovascular disease reduction in response to statin treatment has only been assessed in small studies. In a pharmacogenetic genome wide association study (GWAS) analysis within the Genomic Investigation of Statin Therapy (GIST) consortium, we investigated whether genetic variation was associated with the response of statins on cardiovascular disease risk reduction.Methods: The investigated endpoint was incident myocardial infarction (MI) defined as coronary heart disease death and definite and suspect non-fatal MI. For imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), regression analysis was performed on expected allelic dosage and meta-analysed with a fixed-effects model, inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All SNPs with p-values &lt;5.0 × 10−4 in stage 1 GWAS meta-analysis were selected for further investigation in stage-2. As a secondary analysis, we extracted SNPs from the Stage-1 GWAS meta-analysis results based on predefined hypotheses to possibly modifying the effect of statin therapy on MI.Results: In stage-1 meta-analysis (eight studies, n = 10,769, 4,212 cases), we observed no genome-wide significant results (p &lt; 5.0 × 10−8). A total of 144 genetic variants were followed-up in the second stage (three studies, n = 1,525, 180 cases). In the combined meta-analysis, no genome-wide significant hits were identified. Moreover, none of the look-ups of SNPs known to be associated with either CHD or with statin response to cholesterol levels reached Bonferroni level of significance within our stage-1 meta-analysis.Conclusion: This GWAS analysis did not provide evidence that genetic variation affects statin response on cardiovascular risk reduction. It does not appear likely that genetic testing for predicting effects of statins on clinical events will become a useful tool in clinical practice.

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