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ESMO Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 100363
S.F. Lee ◽  
B.A. Vellayappan ◽  
L.C. Wong ◽  
C.L. Chiang ◽  
S.K. Chan ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 2100398
Kasper Dienel ◽  
Ahmed Abu‐Shahba ◽  
Roman Kornilov ◽  
Roy Björkstrand ◽  
Bas Bochove ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261150
Kirsten K. Ahring ◽  
Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen ◽  
Annemarie Brüel ◽  
Mette Christensen ◽  
Erik Jensen ◽  

Introduction Management of phenylketonuria (PKU) is mainly achieved through dietary control with limited intake of phenylalanine (Phe) from food, supplemented with low protein (LP) food and a mixture of free synthetic (FS) amino acids (AA) (FSAA). Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese making by the action of the enzyme chymosin. Because CGMP in its pure form does not contain Phe, it is nutritionally suitable as a supplement in the diet for PKU when enriched with specific AAs. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 (= CGMP) used in this study contained only trace amounts of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective The aims were to address the following questions in a classical PKU mouse model: Study 1, off diet: Can pure CGMP or CGMP supplemented with Large Neutral Amino Acids (LNAA) as a supplement to normal diet significantly lower the content of Phe in the brain compared to a control group on normal diet, and does supplementation of selected LNAA results in significant lower brain Phe level?. Study 2, on diet: Does a combination of CGMP, essential (non-Phe) EAAs and LP diet, provide similar plasma and brain Phe levels, growth and behavioral skills as a formula which alone consist of FSAA, with a similar composition?. Material and methods 45 female mice homozygous for the Pahenu2 mutation were treated for 12 weeks in five different groups; G1(N-CGMP), fed on Normal (N) casein diet (75%) in combination with CGMP (25%); G2 (N-CGMP-LNAA), fed on Normal (N) casein diet (75%) in combination with CGMP (19,7%) and selected LNAA (5,3% Leu, Tyr and Trp); G3 (N), fed on normal casein diet (100%); G4 (CGMP-EAA-LP), fed on CGMP (70,4%) in combination with essential AA (19,6%) and LP diet; G5 (FSAA-LP), fed on FSAA (100%) and LP diet. The following parameters were measured during the treatment period: Plasma AA profiles including Phe and Tyr, growth, food and water intake and number of teeth cut. At the end of the treatment period, a body scan (fat and lean body mass) and a behavioral test (Barnes Maze) were performed. Finally, the brains were examined for content of Phe, Tyr, Trp, dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the bone density and bone mineral content were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Study 1: Mice off diet supplemented with CGMP (G1 (N-CGMP)) or supplemented with CGMP in combination with LNAA (G2 (N-CGMP-LNAA)) had significantly lower Phe in plasma and in the brain compared to mice fed only casein (G3 (N)). Extra LNAA (Tyr, Trp and Leu) to CGMP did not have any significant impact on Phe levels in the plasma and brain, but an increase in serotonin was measured in the brain of G2 mice compared to G1. Study 2: PKU mice fed with mixture of CGMP and EAA as supplement to LP diet (G4 (CGMP-EAA-LP)) demonstrated lower plasma-Phe levels but similar brain- Phe levels and growth as mice fed on an almost identical combination of FSAA (G5 (FSAA-LP)). Conclusion CGMP can be a relevant supplement for the treatment of PKU.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Chang Liu ◽  
Dai Yuan ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Ye Tao ◽  
Ying Meng ◽  

Objective. Central inflammation is generally accepted to be involved in the pathology of depression. We investigated whether liquiritin exerts antidepressant effects by inhibiting central NLRP3 inflammasomes. Results. The behavioral despair model and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in mice were established to evaluate the antidepressant action of liquiritin. In the despair model study, liquiritin (40 mg/kg) administration reduced immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) without affecting locomotion activity. In CUMS model study, liquiritin (40 mg/kg, once daily for 4 weeks) significantly increased sucrose consumption and body weight of CUMS mice. The behavioral experiment results showed that liquiritin reduced the immobile time of CUMS mice in TST and FST, respectively, and increased the time spent and open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. Further, the hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in liquiritin-treated group, while malonaldehyde (MDA) decreased. Additionally, the hippocampal cytokines interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) contents were reduced in the liquiritin-treated group. Further, liquiritin downregulated the expression of NLRP3 in the hippocampus of CUMS mice rather than TLR4. Besides, NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins caspase-1 and ASC were also downregulated. However, liquiritin did not alter the thermal stability of NLRP3 in the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), suggesting that its inhibition of NLPR3 was not by direct targeting of NLRP3 protein. Conclusions. Liquiritin attenuates depression-like behavior of CUMS mice and inhibited cytokines levels triggered by NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting the antidepressant action is, at least partially, associated with antioxidant stress and inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

2022 ◽  
Luca Trotter ◽  
Margarita Saft ◽  
Murray Cameron Peel ◽  
Keirnan James Andrew Fowler

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 155-171
Arto Heitto ◽  
Kari Lehtinen ◽  
Tuukka Petäjä ◽  
Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker ◽  
Joel A. Thornton ◽  

Abstract. The rate at which freshly formed secondary aerosol particles grow is an important factor in determining their climate impacts. The growth rate of atmospheric nanoparticles may be affected by particle-phase oligomerization and decomposition of condensing organic molecules. We used the Model for Oligomerization and Decomposition in Nanoparticle Growth (MODNAG) to investigate the potential atmospheric significance of these effects. This was done by conducting multiple simulations with varying reaction-related parameters (volatilities of the involved compounds and reaction rates) using both artificial and ambient measured gas-phase concentrations of organic vapors to define the condensing vapors. While our study does not aim at providing information on any specific reaction, our results indicate that particle-phase reactions have significant potential to affect the nanoparticle growth. In simulations in which one-third of a volatility basis set bin was allowed to go through particle-phase reactions, the maximum increase in growth rates was 71 % and the decrease 26 % compared to the base case in which no particle-phase reactions were assumed to take place. These results highlight the importance of investigating and increasing our understanding of particle-phase reactions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 122383
Manvi Rajput ◽  
Suram Singh ◽  
Preeti Verma ◽  
Veerta Rani ◽  
Arun Bharti ◽  

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