hydrochloric acid
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 656
Wei-Sheng Chen ◽  
Chih-Yuan Hsiao ◽  
Cheng-Han Lee

Electronic products are ever growing in popularity, and tantalum capacitors are heavily used in small electronic products. Spent epoxy-coated solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors, containing about 22 wt.% of tantalum and 8 wt.% of manganese, were treated with selective leaching by hydrochloric acid and chlorination after removing the epoxy resin, and the products converted, respectively, to Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5. The effects of acid type, acid concentration, liquid–solid ratio, and reaction time were investigated to dissolve the manganese. The optimal selective leaching conditions were determined as 3 mol/L of HCl, 40 mL/g at 25 °C for 32 min. Next, residues of selective leaching after washing and drying were heated with ferrous chloride to convert to pure TaCl5. Mixing 48 wt.% of chloride and 52 wt.% of residues for a total of 5 g was conducted to complete the chlorination process in the tube furnace at 450 °C for 3 h. A total of 2.35 g of Ta was collected and the recovery of Ta achieved 94%. Finally, Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5 were separated and purified as the products.

Anera Kazlagić ◽  
Francesco F. Russo ◽  
Jochen Vogl ◽  
Patrick Sturm ◽  
Dietmar Stephan ◽  

AbstractThe 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio can, in principle, be used for provenancing of cement. However, while commercial cements consist of multiple components, no detailed investigation into their individual 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios or their influence on the integral 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio of the resulting cement was conducted previously. Therefore, the present study aimed at determining and comparing the conventional 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of a diverse set of Portland cements and their corresponding Portland clinkers, the major component of these cements. Two approaches to remove the additives from the cements, i.e. to measure the conventional 87Sr/86Sr isotopic fingerprint of the clinker only, were tested, namely, treatment with a potassium hydroxide/sucrose solution and sieving on a 11-µm sieve. Dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid/nitric acid and in diluted nitric acid was employed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the cements and the individual clinkers. The aim was to find the most appropriate sample preparation procedure for cement provenancing, and the selection was realised by comparing the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of differently treated cements with those of the corresponding clinkers. None of the methods to separate the clinkers from the cements proved to be satisfactory. However, it was found that the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of clinker and cement generally corresponded, meaning that the latter can be used as a proxy for the clinker 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. Finally, the concentrated hydrochloric acid/nitric acid dissolution method was found to be the most suitable sample preparation method for the cements; it is thus recommended for 87Sr/86Sr isotope analyses for cement provenancing. Graphical abstract

N.K. Dosmukhamedov ◽  
E.E. Zholdasbay ◽  
V.A. Kaplan ◽  
G.S. Daruesh ◽  

A laboratory setup has been developed to study the regularities of crystallization of aluminium chloride hexahydrate from hydrochloric acid solutions. The influence of the AlCl3 content in the initial solution, the consumption of gaseous HCl, and the behavior of impurities on the crystallization of AlCl3·6H2O from aluminium chloride solutions of leaching cinder obtained as a result of chlorinating ash burning from thermal power plants in Kazakhstan have been studied. The behavior of impurity metals in the process of crystallization of aluminium chloride solution has been studied, and their distribution between the products of the crystallization process has been established. It is shown that aluminium chloride content in the solution decreases with an increase in the consumption of hydrochloric acid. It was found that under the conditions of crystallization of AlCl3·6H2O, all impurities, except for barium, pass by 98% into the mother liquor. To reduce barium and other impurities in the obtained crystals of AlCl3·6H2O, it is proposed to carry out multiple washing of the crystals with hydrochloric acid (32% HCl). It has been shown that a decrease in the acidity of the washing solution from pH = 10 to pH = 5.5 ensures the isolation of ACH crystals with a minimum content of impurity metals, ppm: 3-5 Ca; 3-6 Fe; 1-3 Mg; 0.1-0.5 Ti; 1-3 Na; 20-30 P2O5. The moisture content of the obtained crystals is 4-5%; the particle size is 400-900 microns. As a result of mathematical processing, regression equations were constructed that adequately predict aluminium chloride content in the solution and its extraction into crystalline hydrate, depending on the consumption of hydrochloric acid. The optimal parameters of the crystallization process have been established: Т = 60 ºС, HCl concentration in the solution - 26-30%, HCl gas consumption = 0.5 l/min, duration 1 hour.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 432-436
Nagamani Rayala ◽  
Sumathi Vodnala ◽  
Supriya Kamsani ◽  
A.K.D. Bhavani ◽  
Nagaraju Myakala ◽  

A novel series of unsymmetrical C-N linked bis heterocycles bearing quinazolinone and acridinedione skeletons have been synthesized in an acid promoted one pot multicomponent reaction. A blend of 6-aminoquinazolin-4-(3H)-one, aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexane-1,3-dione in a simple and efficient condensation-cyclization reaction using hydrochloric acid in catalytic amount as catalyst afforded unsymmetrical bis hybrids in good to excellent yields. Multiheterocyclic hybrid compounds were also synthesized using heterocyclic ring containing aldehyde in three component reaction. The synthesized quinazolinone-acridindione hybrids were characterized using spectroscopic techniques such as a IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-mass and HRMS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2160 (1) ◽  
pp. 012021
Jing Liu ◽  
Xiaobin Han ◽  
Yulong Peng ◽  
Xiaoyan Wang ◽  
Runmeng Qiao ◽  

Abstract Diatomite is a kind of natural material with adsorption capacity and it’s widely used in industry. The main purpose of this paper is to study the influence of hydrochloric acid concentration and modification time on the modification effect of diatomite. This article describes a modified method of diatomite, which can not only reduce the purification cost, but also improve the separation efficiency of solanesol. The results show that when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is 3mol/L and the treatment time is 50 minutes, the modification effect of diatomite is the best. The determination of the optimum technological conditions is conducive to the separation and purification of Solanesol by diatomite, and lays a foundation for the further development and utilization of diatomite.

2022 ◽  
Yasser Attia Attia ◽  
Yasser Mahmoud A. Mohamed

Investigation of the relationship between the morphology of Ag/AgCl nanostructured composites with their catalytic performance was reported. The concentration ratio of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid was controlled to produce...

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