nitric acid
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Anera Kazlagić ◽  
Francesco F. Russo ◽  
Jochen Vogl ◽  
Patrick Sturm ◽  
Dietmar Stephan ◽  

AbstractThe 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio can, in principle, be used for provenancing of cement. However, while commercial cements consist of multiple components, no detailed investigation into their individual 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios or their influence on the integral 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio of the resulting cement was conducted previously. Therefore, the present study aimed at determining and comparing the conventional 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of a diverse set of Portland cements and their corresponding Portland clinkers, the major component of these cements. Two approaches to remove the additives from the cements, i.e. to measure the conventional 87Sr/86Sr isotopic fingerprint of the clinker only, were tested, namely, treatment with a potassium hydroxide/sucrose solution and sieving on a 11-µm sieve. Dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid/nitric acid and in diluted nitric acid was employed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the cements and the individual clinkers. The aim was to find the most appropriate sample preparation procedure for cement provenancing, and the selection was realised by comparing the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of differently treated cements with those of the corresponding clinkers. None of the methods to separate the clinkers from the cements proved to be satisfactory. However, it was found that the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of clinker and cement generally corresponded, meaning that the latter can be used as a proxy for the clinker 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. Finally, the concentrated hydrochloric acid/nitric acid dissolution method was found to be the most suitable sample preparation method for the cements; it is thus recommended for 87Sr/86Sr isotope analyses for cement provenancing. Graphical abstract

Chunli Wu ◽  
Xiaohao Dong ◽  
Lan Wang ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Xiaotong Liu

Abstract In order to improve the visible light catalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and ensure its long-term stability on the surface of concrete, an N-TiO2/SiO2 composite was prepared using tetrabutyl titanate, nitric acid, and modified SiO2 nanospheres as the precursors by a solvothermal method. The effect of nitric acid on the phase composition, morphology and photoelectric properties of the synthesized photocatalytic composites was systematically studied by various characterization methods. The results show that the optimum nitric acid/butyl titanate volume ratio is 1/6. The nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of spherical SiO2 with a diameter of 200 nm. The degradation rate of simulated pollutants (RhB) with pH 5 and 7 exceeded 95% within 30 minutes and the catalytic effect remained excellent after five repetitions without much weakening. The excellent visible photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the doping of N replacing part of the oxygen atoms in TiO2, forming the energy level of N 2p at the O 2p energy level and reducing the TiO2 energy band gap to 2.99 eV. At the same time, the better dispersion of N-TiO2/SiO2 prepared by this new synthesis method also plays an important role in the improvement of visible light photocatalytic activity.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Thet Aung ◽  
Inayat Batish ◽  
Reza Ovissipour

This study aimed to determine the microplastic prevalence in eastern oysters (C. virginica) in three sites in the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and optimize the digestion methods. The digestion results illustrate that the lowest recovery rate and digestion recovery were related to enzymatic, enzymatic + hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and HCl 5% treatments, while the highest digestion recovery and recovery rate were observed in H2O2 and basic (KOH) treatments. Nitric acid digestion resulted in satisfying digestion recovery (100%), while no blue polyethylene microplastics were observed due to the poor recovery rate. In addition, nitric acid altered the color, changed the Raman spectrum intensity, and melted polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In order to determine the number of microplastics, 144 oysters with an approximately similar size and weight from three sites, including the James River, York River, and Eastern Shore, were evaluated. Fragments were the most abundant microplastics among the different microplastics, followed by fibers and beads, in the three sites. A significantly higher number of fragments were found in the James River, probably due to the greater amount of human activities. The number of microplastics per gram of oyster tissue was higher in the James River, with 7 MPs/g tissue, than in the York River and Eastern Shore, with 6.7 and 5.6 MPs/g tissue.

2022 ◽  
Shinta Watanabe ◽  
Yusuke Inaba ◽  
Miki Harigai ◽  
Kenji Takeshita ◽  
Jun Onoe

Abstract We have examined the uptake mechanisms of platinum-group-metals (PGMs) and molybdenum (Mo) ions into PBNPs in a nitric acid solution for 24-h sorption test, using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, powder XRD, and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy in combination with first-principles calculations, and revealed that the Ru4+ and Pd2+ ions are incorporated into PBNPs by substitution with Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions of the PB framework, respectively, whereas the Rh3+ ion is incorporated into PBNPs by substitution mainly with Fe3+ and minorly with Fe2+ ion, and Mo6+ ion is incorporated into PBNPs by substitution with both Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, with maintaining the crystal structure before and after the sorption test. Assuming that the amount of Fe elusion is equal to that of PGMs/Mo substitution, the substitution efficiency is estimated to be 39.0% for Ru, 47.8% for Rh, 87% for Pd, and 17.1% for Mo6+. This implies that 0.13 g of Ru, 0.16 g of Rh, 0.30 g of Pd, and 0.107 g of Mo can be recovered by using 1g PBNPs with a chemical form of KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)6].

2022 ◽  
Vol 2155 (1) ◽  
pp. 012026
M K Kylyshkanov ◽  
N N Yaroshenko ◽  
G V Gusakova ◽  
A A Dorn ◽  
A A Gofman ◽  

Abstract One of the activities of the Uranium production of JSC “UMP” is the processing of hard-to-open uranium-gadolinium-containing scraps. When processing materials of this type, after their dissolution, the gadolinium fluoride precipitation operation is carried out with the subsequent extraction purification of the obtained uranyl nitrate solutions. At the deposition stage, almost all the gadolinium contained in the scraps is transferred to the GdF3 precipitate and sent to the tailings dump as part of the solid waste. In order to determine the possibility of obtaining gadolinium oxide from waste processing of uran-gadolinium containing materials, exploratory studies were initiated. In the course of the work, various methods of obtaining gadolinium oxide were tested. A number of experiments were carried out to refine the modes of obtaining gadolinium oxide by the method of two-stage precipitation of oxalate. A technological scheme was developed, according to which a finished product was obtained, suitable for further use in the technology of obtaining uranium-gadolinium tablets of UMP JSC. The scheme consists of the following main operations: dissolution of gadolinium fluoride in a solution of aluminum nitrate, precipitation of gadolinium oxalate, washing of gadolinium oxalate in the first stage of precipitation with a solution of nitric acid, conversion of oxalate to gadolinium hydroxide, dissolution of hydroxide in a solution of nitric acid, re-precipitation of gadolinium oxalate, calcination to gadolinium oxide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 280 ◽  
pp. 119805
Qian Xiao ◽  
Lianjun Song ◽  
Xueyu Wang ◽  
Haowei Xu ◽  
Lanlan He ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
M. Shah ◽  
S. Kausar ◽  
J. A. Mian ◽  
H. Jabeen ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:

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