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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 656
Wei-Sheng Chen ◽  
Chih-Yuan Hsiao ◽  
Cheng-Han Lee

Electronic products are ever growing in popularity, and tantalum capacitors are heavily used in small electronic products. Spent epoxy-coated solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors, containing about 22 wt.% of tantalum and 8 wt.% of manganese, were treated with selective leaching by hydrochloric acid and chlorination after removing the epoxy resin, and the products converted, respectively, to Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5. The effects of acid type, acid concentration, liquid–solid ratio, and reaction time were investigated to dissolve the manganese. The optimal selective leaching conditions were determined as 3 mol/L of HCl, 40 mL/g at 25 °C for 32 min. Next, residues of selective leaching after washing and drying were heated with ferrous chloride to convert to pure TaCl5. Mixing 48 wt.% of chloride and 52 wt.% of residues for a total of 5 g was conducted to complete the chlorination process in the tube furnace at 450 °C for 3 h. A total of 2.35 g of Ta was collected and the recovery of Ta achieved 94%. Finally, Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5 were separated and purified as the products.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 644
Maria Harja ◽  
Carmen Teodosiu ◽  
Dorina Nicolina Isopescu ◽  
Osman Gencel ◽  
Doina Lutic ◽  

Fly ash wastes (silica, aluminum and iron-rich materials) could be smartly valorized by their incorporation in concrete formulation, partly replacing the cement. The necessary binding properties can be accomplished by a simple procedure: an alkali activation process, involving partial hydrolysis, followed by gel formation and polycondensation. The correlations between the experimental fly ash processing conditions, particle characteristics (size and morphology) and the compressive strength values of the concrete prepared using this material were investigated by performing a parametric optimization study to deduce the optimal processing set of conditions. The alkali activation procedure included the variation of the NaOH solutions concentration (8–12 M), temperature values (25–65 °C) and the liquid/solid ratio (1–3). The activation led to important modifications of the crystallography of the samples (shown by powder XRD analysis), their morphologies (seen by SEM), particle size distribution and Blaine surface values. The values of the compressive strength of concrete prepared using fly ash derivatives were between 16.8–22.6 MPa. Thus, the processed fly ash qualifies as a proper potential building material, solving disposal-associated problems, as well as saving significant amounts of cement consumed in concrete formulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 831
Hamida Akli ◽  
Spyros Grigorakis ◽  
Abdessamie Kellil ◽  
Sofia Loupassaki ◽  
Dimitris P. Makris ◽  

The extraction of phenolic compounds from olive leaves was optimized using three glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with lysine, proline, and arginine. A three-level Box–Behnken design was used to examine the influence of the liquid/solid ratio, concentration of DESs, and extraction temperature on the yield of the extraction process. A second-order polynomial model was used for predicting the polyphenol extraction yield. The optimal predicted conditions were used for extractions and they provided the highest total phenol yields with the glycerol–lysine exhibiting the best performance. Quantification of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and rutin in the extracts showed high content in tyrosol in all DESs, particularly with glycerol–lysine and relatively similar contents with other studies for the other phenolic compounds. Finally, a linear relationship between tyrosol content and the total phenolic content of the extracts was observed.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Pascale Subra-Paternault ◽  
Maria del Pilar Garcia-Mendoza ◽  
Raphaëlle Savoire ◽  
Christelle Harscoat-Schiavo

The objective was to evaluate the performance of four hydro-alcoholic solvents to simultaneously extract oil and more polar molecules as phenolics, among others, to produce complex extracts that eventually could self-emulsify after solvent removal. Walnut press-cake was selected as the sourcing material. Extractions were performed as a semi-continuous operation up to a solvent-to-solid ratio of 28, with a fractional collection of the effluent. Among the solvents, labelled by their alcohol content EtOH 58, EtOH 86, iPro 60 and iPro 90 for ethanol (EtOH) and isopropanol (iPro), iPro 90 allowed to reach an oil extraction efficiency of 97% while the recovery for the other solvents was in the range of 30–40%. For both alcohols, the increase of the solvent hydration negatively influenced the oil extraction but positively increased the recovery of phenolics that reached 17.6 mg GAE/gcake when EtOH 58 was used. Several fractions contained enough surface-active material and oil to self-assemble as emulsions. IPro 90 and EtOH 86 showed better performances in the sense that most extracts were able to emulsify, though extraction kinetics pointed out differences. The most hydrated solvents behaved equally, with extraction yields in the same range and a similar but limited emulsifying capacity of only few fractions.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 362
Yuan Ma ◽  
Ailian Meng ◽  
Ping Liu ◽  
Yuanyuan Chen ◽  
Anqi Yuan ◽  

Phenols were extracted from the Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) shell (PAS) using ethanol. A Plackett–Burman assessment indicated that the factors affecting polyphenol extraction included the ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time, and reflux extraction times; the best extraction parameters were the ethanol concentration of 75%, a 20:1 liquid to solid ratio, and an extraction time of 2.1 h. The number of polyphenols was 7.216 mg/g. Furthermore, the phenol composition analysis showed the presence of p-Coumaric acid (196.88 mg /mL) and rutin (312.9 mg /mL), which were used for the in vitro extraction and determination of the antioxidant activity. According to the A, B, C, and D antioxidant activity assays, the ethyl acetate phase was the strongest with low IC50 values of 0.169 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 0.289 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 0.372 ± 0.01 mg/mL, and 1.029 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively, confirming high antioxidant activity. For the n-butanol and petroleum ether phases, antioxidant activity was lower. This study showed that the polyphenol extract from Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) shell displayed excellent antioxidant activity, enhancing its practical application.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
José Pérez ◽  
Karina Gómez ◽  
Lorena Vega

Watermelon rind was used for the pectin extraction with citric acid as the extractant solvent. The effects of pH (2.0-3.0), extraction time (45-75 min), and liquid-solid ratio (10 : 1 to 40 : 1 mL/g) on the pectin yield, degree of esterification, methoxyl content, and anhydrouronic acid content were investigated using Box-Behnken surface response experimental design. The pH was the most significant variable for the pectin yield and properties. The responses optimized separately showed different optimal conditions for each one of the variables studied in this work. Therefore, the desirability function was used to determine the sole theoretical optimum for the highest pectin yield and highest anhydrouronic acid content, which was found to be pH of 2.0, extraction time of 62.31 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 35.07 mL/g. Under this optimal condition, the pectin yield, degree of esterification, methoxyl content, and anhydrouronic acid content were 24.30%, 73.30%, 10.45%, and 81.33%, respectively. At optimal conditions, watermelon rind pectin can be classified as high methoxyl and rapid-set pectin with high quality and high purity. Practical Applications. This study evaluated the pectin extraction from watermelon rind and carried out an optimization of multiple responses as a function of pH, time, and liquid-solid ratio to obtain the best preliminary quality parameters (pectin yield and anhydrouronic acid content). The results revealed that watermelon rind waste can be an inexpensive source to obtain good pectin quality and high purity. According to the chemical characterization and physicochemical properties studied, the extracted pectin from watermelon rind would have a high potential to be used in food industry.

Mohammed Nouali ◽  
Mickael Saillio ◽  
Elhem Ghorbel

The tunnel excavation works generate huge quantities of earth. These excavated materials are primarily stored in landfills. This paper proposes an alternative solution for valorizing excavated earth in earthen constructions. Firstly, the excavated earth was characterized using differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA / TGA), infrared spectra (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction. Hence, sand, fine particles, and water extracted from excavated earth are used to elaborate mortars’ stabilized with cement, lime, and slag. Short hemp fibers were also used to diminish shrinkage cracks. The quantity of stabilizers was fixed to 5% by weight of the excavated earth while the water/solid ratio was maintained constant and equal to 0.45. Five different mortar formulations were performed using excavated earth and were cured for 28 days in a controlled environment before testing. Compressive and three-point flexural tests were carried out to determine specimens’ mechanical properties. The characterization results show that the excavated earth are mainly composed of dolomite, calcite, quartz, and clay. While, the mechanical results show that the stabilized excavated earth with cement additive presents higher mechanical properties relative to the other additives.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 298
Perwez Alam ◽  
Omar M. Noman ◽  
Rashed N. Herqash ◽  
Omer M. Almarfadi ◽  
Ali Akhtar ◽  

In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized to maximize the yields of sennoside A, sennoside B, aloe-emodin, emodin, and chrysophanol from S. alexandrina (aerial parts). The three UAE factors, extraction temperature (S1), extraction time (S2), and liquid to solid ratio (S3), were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box–Behnken design was used for experimental design and phytoconstituent analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-UV. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be a 64.2 °C extraction temperature, 52.1 min extraction time, and 25.2 mL/g liquid to solid ratio. The experimental values of sennoside A, sennoside B, aloe-emodin, emodin, and chrysophanol (2.237, 12.792, 2.457, 0.261, and 1.529%, respectively) agreed with those predicted (2.152, 12.031, 2.331, 0.214, and 1.411%, respectively) by RSM models, thus demonstrating the appropriateness of the model used and the accomplishment of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions. Excellent antioxidant properties were exhibited by S. alexandrina methanol extract obtained using the optimized extraction conditions with a DPPH assay (IC50 = 59.7 ± 1.93, µg/mL) and ABTS method (47.2 ± 1.40, µg/mL) compared to standard ascorbic acid.

I. G. Fattakhov ◽  
L. S. Kuleshova ◽  
Sh. Kh. Sultanov ◽  
V. V. Mukhametshin ◽  

Increasing the efficiency of water shut-off works is one of the important tasks for the sustainable well operation. The article discusses the use of various plugging compositions for water inflow into a well isolating, their advantages and disadvantages, conditions of use, and presents the results of a study of the proposed composition. The composition of an aqueous solution of polyaluminium chloride and a suspension of gypsum anhydrite is considered. The composition contains 45-55 mass percent of 15-25 percent aqueous solution of polyaluminium chloride and 45-55 mass percent suspension of gypsum anhydrite at a water-solid ratio of 0.9. The technical result is an increase in the efficiency of water inflow into the well isolating by obtaining a homogeneous, dense plugging mass formed by mixing the components of the composition and gaining maximum strength over time. Keywords: well; water cut; isolation; water inflow; plugging mass; bottomhole formation zone; oil production; polyaluminium chloride; anhydrite.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Ahcene Kadi ◽  
Hafid Boudries ◽  
Mostapha Bachir-bey ◽  
Mohand Teffane ◽  
Abdeslem Taibi ◽  

Background: Citrus fruits, especially clementines, are among the most consumed fruits in the world. Clementine consists of pulp (endocarp) and peel (epicarp) which are rich in carotenoids. After using fruit pulp, peels are usually discarded as waste; the valorization of the latter in the recovery of its beneficial components, mainly carotenoids, may seem to be important. Objective: The main objective of this study is to determine the optimal conditions allowing the extraction of a high carotenoids yield from clementine peels. Methods: The microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE) was applied for extraction of total carotenoids from Citrus clementina peels, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the influence of extraction parameters, including hexane concentration, microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent to solid ratio, on the extraction yield, then the results were modeled using a second order regression. Total carotenoids yield of clementine peel extract obtained under optimal microwave-assisted extraction conditions was compared to extracts performed using two conventional extraction methods (maceration and Soxhlet). Results: The optimal conditions for microwave-assisted extraction were 68% of hexane concentration using 561 W of microwave power during 7.64 min of irradiation time, 43 ml/g of solvent-to-solid ratio using two successive extractions. Under optimized conditions of microwave-assisted extraction, the recovery of carotenoid content was 186.55 µg/g dry matter (DM), which was higher than that obtained by the two conventional methods, maceration extraction (ME; 160.53 µg/g DM) and Soxhlet extraction (SE; 162.68 µg/g DM). Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that microwave-assisted extraction is an efficient method for carotenoid recovery and considering its high yield in reduced time, it could be recommended for extraction of these bioactive compounds from clementine peels.

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