heterocyclic ring
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 556
Juan M. Ledo ◽  
Henoc Flores ◽  
Fernando Ramos ◽  
Elsa A. Camarillo

Using static bomb combustion calorimetry, the combustion energy of 1-methylhydantoin was obtained, from which the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the crystalline phase at T = 298.15 K of the compound studied was calculated. Through thermogravimetry, mass loss rates were measured as a function of temperature, from which the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated. Additionally, some properties of fusion were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, such as enthalpy and temperature. Adding the enthalpy of fusion to the enthalpy of vaporization, the enthalpy of sublimation of the compound was obtained at T = 298.15 K. By combining the enthalpy of formation of the compound in crystalline phase with its enthalpy of sublimation, the respective standard molar enthalpy of formation in the gas phase was calculated. On the other hand, the results obtained in the present work were compared with those of other derivatives of hydantoin, with which the effect of the change of some substituents in the base heterocyclic ring was evaluated.

Benjamin J. Lethbridge ◽  
Robert E. Asenstorfer ◽  
Laura S. Bailey ◽  
Brenda T. Breil ◽  
Jodie V. Johnson ◽  

AbstractTrifolitoxin (TFX, C41H63N15O15S) is a selective, ribosomally-synthesized, post-translationally modified, peptide antibiotic, produced by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii T24. TFX specifically inhibits α-proteobacteria, including the plant symbiont Rhizobium spp., the plant pathogen Agrobacterium spp. and the animal pathogen Brucella abortus. TFX-producing strains prevent legume root nodulation by TFX-sensitive rhizobia. TFX has been isolated as a pair of geometric isomers, TFX1 and TFX2, which are derived from the biologically inactive primary amino acid sequence: Asp-Ile-Gly-Gly-Ser-Arg-Gln-Gly-Cys-Val-Ala. Gly-Cys is present as a thiazoline ring and the Arg-Gln-Gly sequence is extensively modified to a UV absorbing, blue fluorescent chromophore. The chromophore consists of a conjugated, 5-membered heterocyclic ring and side chain of modified glutamine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maan T. Khayat ◽  
Abdelsattar M. Omar ◽  
Farid Ahmed ◽  
Mohammad I. Khan ◽  
Sara M. Ibrahim ◽  

Structural changes of small-molecule drugs may bring interesting biological properties, especially in the field of kinase inhibitors. We sought to study tirbanibulin, a first-in-class dual Src kinase (non-ATP competitive)/tubulin inhibitor because there was not enough reporting about its structure–activity relationships (SARs). In particular, the present research is based on the replacement of the outer ring of the biphenyl system of 2-[(1,1′-biphenyl)-4-yl]-N-benzylacetamide, the identified pharmacophore of KX chemotype, with a heterocyclic ring. The newly synthesized compounds showed a range of activities in cell-based anticancer assays, agreeing with a clear SAR profile. The most potent compound, (Z)-N-benzyl-4-[4-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-yl]phenylacetamide (KIM-161), demonstrated cytotoxic IC50 values at 294 and 362 nM against HCT116 colon cancer and HL60 leukemia cell lines, respectively. Profiling of this compound (aqueous solubility, liver microsomal stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, reactivity with reduced glutathione, and plasma protein binding) confirmed its adequate drug-like properties. Mechanistic studies revealed that this compound does not depend on tubulin or Src kinase inhibition as a factor in forcing HL60 to exit its cell cycle and undergo apoptosis. Instead, KIM-161 downregulated several other kinases such as members of BRK, FLT, and JAK families. It also strongly suppresses signals of ERK1/2, GSK-3α/β, HSP27, and STAT2, while it downregulated AMPKα1 phosphorylation within the HL60 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that phenylacetamide-1H-imidazol-5-one (KIM-161) could be a promising lead compound for further clinical anticancer drug development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 432-436
Nagamani Rayala ◽  
Sumathi Vodnala ◽  
Supriya Kamsani ◽  
A.K.D. Bhavani ◽  
Nagaraju Myakala ◽  

A novel series of unsymmetrical C-N linked bis heterocycles bearing quinazolinone and acridinedione skeletons have been synthesized in an acid promoted one pot multicomponent reaction. A blend of 6-aminoquinazolin-4-(3H)-one, aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexane-1,3-dione in a simple and efficient condensation-cyclization reaction using hydrochloric acid in catalytic amount as catalyst afforded unsymmetrical bis hybrids in good to excellent yields. Multiheterocyclic hybrid compounds were also synthesized using heterocyclic ring containing aldehyde in three component reaction. The synthesized quinazolinone-acridindione hybrids were characterized using spectroscopic techniques such as a IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-mass and HRMS.

Xunfan Liao ◽  
Qian Xie ◽  
Yaxiao Guo ◽  
Qiannan He ◽  
Zeng Chen ◽  

Inhibiting excessive aggregation and migration of active layer molecules is essential to improve the stability and performance of organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, the star-shaped nitrogen heterocyclic-ring acceptor TF1 featuring...

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Farnoosh Behboodyzad ◽  
Tahereh Mohseniabbasabadi ◽  
Nahal Ghanemnia ◽  
Ebrahim Balali

Structural analysis of dexrazoxane, as a cardioprotective agent, was done in this work by exploring formations of tautomeric conformations and investigating the corresponding effects. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to optimize the structures to evaluate their molecular and atomic descriptors. In addition to the original structure of dexrazoxane, eight tautomers were obtained with lower stability than the original compound. Movements of two hydrogen atoms in between nitrogen and oxygen atoms of heterocyclic ring put such significant effects. Moreover, electronic molecular orbital features showed effects of such tautomerism processes on distribution patterns and surfaces, in which evaluating the quadrupole coupling constants helped to show the role of atomic sites for resulting the features. As a consequence, the results indicated that the tautomeric formations could significantly change the features of dexrazoxane reminding the importance of carful medication of this drug for patients.

2021 ◽  
Jiao Li ◽  
Chun-Lin Zhuang

The indole scaffold is one of the most important heterocyclic ring systems for pharmaceutical development, and serves as an active moiety in several clinical drugs. Fungi derived from marine origin are more liable to produce novel indole-containing natural products due to their extreme living environments. The indole alkaloids from marine fungi have drawn considerable attention for their unique chemical structures and significant biological activities. This review attempts to provide a summary of the structural diversity of marine fungal indole alkaloids including prenylated indoles, diketopiperazine indoles, bisindoles or trisindoles, quinazoline-containing indoles, indole-diterpenoids, and other indoles, as well as their known biological activities, mainly focusing on cytotoxic, kinase inhibitory, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-insecticidal, and brine shrimp lethal effects. A total of 306 indole alkaloids from marine fungi have been summarized, covering the references published from 1995 to early 2021, expecting to be beneficial for drug discovery in the future.

Julianna S. Doll ◽  
Nicolas I. Regenauer ◽  
Viktoria P. Bothe ◽  
Hubert Wadepohl ◽  
Dragoş-Adrian Roşca

Abdul Halim ◽  
Ritika Puri

Loxapine is an antipsychotic drug used in neuroleptic disorders since 1980 with an entrenched drug profile. Drug possesses dibenzoxazepine tricyclic 7-membered heterocyclic ring available commercially as oral, intramuscular and inhalation dosage forms. This review comprises the various study designs of loxapine irrespective of its dose formulations. A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted on “Scopus”, “Web of science” and “Pub-med” data base and findings were critically analyzed. The data suggests that there is no significant difference in efficacy between typical and atypical antipsychotics.  Till now, oral and intramuscular route is widely in use. Oral dosage forms are available in the market for the treatment of agitation related to schizophrenia but it has limitation of delayed onset of action that results in increased risk. Intramuscular formulations reveal a significant difference compared to placebo with respect to agitation but time range could be in range of 15 to 60 minutes. Therefore, there is a need for a novel drug delivery system with rapid action, increased half life, better tolerance by the patient and sustained release to get enhanced patient compliance.

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