finite size
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Robert Paul Salazar Romero ◽  
Camilo Bayona Roa ◽  
Gabriel Tellez

Abstract In this work, we study the gapped Surface Electrode (SE), a planar system composed of two-conductor flat regions at different potentials with a gap G between both sheets. The computation of the electric field and the surface charge density requires solving Laplace’s equation subjected to Dirichlet conditions (on the electrodes) and Neumann Boundary Conditions over the gap. In this document, the GSE is modeled as a Two-Dimensional Classical Coulomb Gas having punctual charges +q and −q on the inner and outer electrodes, respectively, interacting with an inverse power law 1~r-potential. The coupling parameter Γ between particles inversely depends on temperature and is proportional to q2. Precisely, the density charge arises from the equilibrium states via Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We focus on the coupling and the gap geometry effect. Mainly on the distribution of particles in the circular and the harmonically-deformed gapped SE. MC simulations differ from electrostatics in the strong coupling regime. The electrostatic approximation and the MC simulations agree in the weak coupling regime where the system behaves as two interacting ionic fluids. That means that temperature is crucial in finite-size versions of the gapped SE where the density charge cannot be assumed fully continuous as the coupling among particles increases. Numerical comparisons are addressed against analytical descriptions based on an electric vector potential approach, finding good agreement.

2022 ◽  
Santiago M Bedoya ◽  
Marcelo Marucho

An accurate characterization of the polyelectrolyte properties of actin filaments might provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the intracellular ionic wave packet propagation in neurons. Infinitely long cylindrical models for actin filaments and approximate electrochemical theories for the electrolyte solutions were recently used to characterize these properties in in-vitro and intracellular conditions. This article uses a molecular structure model for actin filaments to investigate the impact of roughness and finite size on the mean electrical potential, ionic density distributions, currents, and conductivities. We solved the electrochemical theories numerically without further approximations. Our findings bring new insights into the electrochemical interactions between a filament′s irregular surface charge density and the surrounding medium. The irregular shape of the filament structure model generated pockets, or hot spots, where the current density reached higher or lower magnitudes than those in neighboring areas throughout the filament surface. It also revealed the formation of a well-defined asymmetric electrical double layer with a thickness larger than that commonly used for symmetric models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Zhou Zhang ◽  
Yulin Pan

In this paper, we numerically study the wave turbulence of surface gravity waves in the framework of Euler equations of the free surface. The purpose is to understand the variation of the scaling of the spectra with wavenumber $k$ and energy flux $P$ at different nonlinearity levels under different forcing/free-decay conditions. For all conditions (free decay and narrow-band and broad-band forcing) that we consider, we find that the spectral forms approach the wave turbulence theory (WTT) solution $S_\eta \sim k^{-5/2}$ and $S_\eta \sim P^{1/3}$ at high nonlinearity levels. With a decrease of nonlinearity level, the spectra for all cases become steeper, with the narrow-band forcing case exhibiting the most rapid deviation from WTT. We investigate bound waves and the finite-size effect as possible mechanisms causing the spectral variations. Through a tri-coherence analysis, we find that the finite-size effect is present in all cases, which is responsible for the overall steepening of the spectra and the reduced capacity of energy flux at lower nonlinearity levels. The fraction of bound waves in the domain generally decreases with the decrease of nonlinearity level, except for the narrow-band case, which exhibits a transition at a critical nonlinearity level below which a rapid increase is observed. This increase serves as the main reason for the fastest deviation from WTT with the decrease of nonlinearity in the narrow-band forcing case.

Yves Capdeboscq ◽  
Michael Vogelius

Abstract. A central ingredient of cloaking-by-mapping is the diffeomorphisn which transforms an annulus with a small hole into an annulus with a finite size hole, while being the identity on the outer boundary of the annulus. The resulting meta-material is anisotropic, which makes it difficult to manufacture. The problem of minimizing anisotropy among radial transformations has been studied in [4]. In this work, as in [4], we formulate the problem of minimizing anisotropy as an energy minimization problem. Our main goal is to provide strong evidence for the conjecture that for cloaks with circular boundaries, non-radial transformations do not lead to lower degree of anisotropy. In the final section, we consider cloaks with non-circular boundaries and show that in this case, non-radial cloaks may be advantageous, when it comes to minimizing anisotropy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 258 ◽  
pp. 06001
Matteo Di Carlo ◽  
Maxwell T. Hansen ◽  
Nils Hermansson-Truedsson ◽  
Antonin Portelli

We present a model-independent and relativistic approach to analytically derive electromagnetic finite-size effects beyond the point-like approximation. The key element is the use of electromagnetic Ward identities to constrain vertex functions, and structure-dependence appears via physical form-factors and their derivatives. We apply our general method to study the leading finitesize structure-dependence in the pseudoscalar mass (at order 1/L3) as well as in the leptonic decay amplitudes of pions and kaons (at order 1/L2). Knowledge of the latter is essential for Standard Model precision tests in the flavour physics sector from lattice simulations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
Gustav Uhre Jakobsen ◽  
Gustav Mogull ◽  
Jan Plefka ◽  
Jan Steinhoff

Abstract Picture yourself in the wave zone of a gravitational scattering event of two massive, spinning compact bodies (black holes, neutron stars or stars). We show that this system of genuine astrophysical interest enjoys a hidden $$ \mathcal{N} $$ N = 2 supersymmetry, at least to the order of spin-squared (quadrupole) interactions in arbitrary D spacetime dimensions. Using the $$ \mathcal{N} $$ N = 2 supersymmetric worldline action, augmented by finite-size corrections for the non-Kerr black hole case, we build a quadratic-in-spin extension to the worldline quantum field theory (WQFT) formalism introduced in our previous work, and calculate the two bodies’ deflection and spin kick to sub-leading order in the post-Minkowskian expansion in Newton’s constant G. For spins aligned to the normal vector of the scattering plane we also obtain the scattering angle. All D-dimensional observables are derived from an eikonal phase given as the free energy of the WQFT that is invariant under the $$ \mathcal{N} $$ N = 2 supersymmetry transformations.

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