AbstractVariants in the CDH23 gene are known to be responsible for both syndromic hearing loss (Usher syndrome type ID: USH1D) and non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB12). Our series of studies demonstrated that CDH23 variants cause a broad range of phenotypes of non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB12); from congenital profound hearing loss to late-onset high-frequency-involved progressive hearing loss. In this study, based on the genetic and clinical data from more than 10,000 patients, the mutational spectrum, clinical characteristics and genotype/phenotype correlations were evaluated. The present results reconfirmed that the variants in CDH23 are an important cause of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, we showed that the mutational spectrum in the Japanese population, which is probably representative of the East Asian population in general, as well as frequent CDH23 variants that might be due to some founder effects. The present study demonstrated CDH23 variants cause a broad range of phenotypes, from non-syndromic to syndromic hearing loss as well as from congenital to age-related hearing loss. Genotype (variant combinations) and phenotype (association with retinal pigmentosa, onset age) are shown to be well correlated and are thought to be related to the residual function defined by the CDH23 variants.
Objective: To identify and report novel variants in the TMPRSS3 gene and their clinical manifestations related to hearing loss as well as intervention outcomes. This information will be helpful for genetic counseling and treatment planning for these patients.Methods: Literature review of previously reported TMPRSS3 variants was conducted. Reported variants and associated clinical information was compiled. Additionally, cohort data from 18 patients, and their families, with a positive result for TMPRSS3-associated hearing loss were analyzed. Genetic testing included sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analysis of TMPRSS3 and the Laboratory for Molecular Medicine’s OtoGenome-v1, -v2, or -v3 panels. Clinical data regarding patient hearing rehabilitation was interpreted along with their genetic testing results and in the context of previously reported cochlear implant outcomes in individuals with TMPRSS3 variants.Results: There have been 87 previously reported TMPRSS3 variants associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in more than 20 ancestral groups worldwide. Here we report occurrences of known variants as well as one novel variant: deletion of Exons 1–5 and 13 identified from our cohort of 18 patients. The hearing impairment in many of these families was consistent with that of previously reported patients with TMPRSS3 variants (i.e., typical down-sloping audiogram). Four patients from our cohort underwent cochlear implantation.Conclusion: Bi-allelic variants of TMPRSS3 are associated with down-sloping hearing loss regardless of ancestry. The outcome following cochlear implantation in patients with variants of TMPRSS3 is excellent. Therefore, cochlear implantation is strongly recommended for hearing rehabilitation in these patients.
Clinical presentation is heterogeneous for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). Variants of KCNQ4 gene is a common genetic factor of ADNSHL. Few studies have investigated the association between hearing impairment and the variant c.546C>G of KCNQ4. Here, we investigated the phenotype and clinical manifestations of the KCNQ4 variant. Study subjects were selected from the participants of the Taiwan Precision Medicine Initiative. In total, we enrolled 12 individuals with KCNQ4 c.546C>G carriers and 107 non-carriers, and performed pure tone audiometry (PTA) test and phenome-wide association (PheWAS) analysis for the patients. We found that c.546C>G variant was related to an increased risk of hearing loss. All patients with c.546C>G variant were aged >65 years and had sensorineural and high frequency hearing loss. Of these patients, a third (66.7%) showed moderate and progressive hearing loss, 41.7% complained of tinnitus and 16.7% complained of vertigo. Additionally, we found a significant association between KCNQ4 c.546C>G variant, aortic aneurysm, fracture of lower limb and polyneuropathy in diabetes. KCNQ4 c.546C>G is likely a potentially pathogenic variant of ADNSHL in the elderly population. Genetic counseling, annual audiogram and early assistive listening device intervention are highly recommended to prevent profound hearing impairment in this patient group.
Since the early 2000s, an ever-increasing subset of missense pathogenic variants in the ACTG1 gene has been associated with an autosomal-dominant, progressive, typically post-lingual non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) condition designed as DFNA20/26. ACTG1 gene encodes gamma actin, the predominant actin protein in the cytoskeleton of auditory hair cells; its normal expression and function are essential for the stereocilia maintenance. Different gain-of-function pathogenic variants of ACTG1 have been associated with two major phenotypes: DFNA20/26 and Baraitser–Winter syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder. Here, we report a novel ACTG1 variant [c.625G>A (p. Val209Met)] in an adult patient with moderate-severe NSHL characterized by a downsloping audiogram. The patient, who had a clinical history of slowly progressive NSHL and tinnitus, was referred to our laboratory for the analysis of a large panel of NSHL-associated genes by next generation sequencing. An extensive review of previously reported ACTG1 variants and their associated phenotypes was also performed.
Pendred syndrome (PDS) is the most common form of syndromic Hearing Loss (HL), characterized by sensorineural HL, inner ear malformations, and goiter, with or without hypothyroidism. SLC26A4 is the major gene involved, even though ~50% of the patients carry only one pathogenic mutation. This study aims to define the molecular diagnosis for a cohort of 24 suspected-PDS patients characterized by a deep radiological and audiological evaluation. Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES), the analysis of twelve variants upstream of SLC26A4, constituting the “CEVA haplotype” and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA) searching for deletions/duplications in SLC26A4 gene have been carried out. In five patients (20.8%) homozygous/compound heterozygous SLC26A4 mutations, or pathogenic mutation in trans with the CEVA haplotype have been identified, while five subjects (20.8%) resulted heterozygous for a single variant. In silico protein modeling supported the pathogenicity of the detected variants, suggesting an effect on the protein stabilization/function. Interestingly, we identified a genotype-phenotype correlation among those patients carrying SLC26A4 mutations, whose audiograms presented a characteristic slope at the medium and high frequencies, providing new insights into PDS. Finally, an interesting homozygous variant in MYO5C has been identified in one patient negative to SLC26A4 gene, suggesting the identification of a new HL candidate gene.
Background: Mutations in the STRC (MIM 606440) gene, inducing DFNB16, are considered a major cause of mild–moderate autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the global prevalence and characteristics of STRC variations, important information required for genetic counseling.Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published before January 2021.Results: The pooled prevalence of DFNB16 in GJB2-negative patients with hearing loss was 4.08% (95% CI: 0.0289–0.0573), and the proportion of STRC variants in the mild–moderate hearing loss group was 14.36%. Monoallelic mutations of STRC were 4.84% (95% CI: 0.0343–0.0680) in patients with deafness (non-GJB2) and 1.36% (95% CI: 0.0025–0.0696) in people with normal hearing. The DFNB16 prevalence in genetically confirmed patients (non-GJB2) was 11.10% (95% CI: 0.0716–0.1682). Overall pooled prevalence of deafness–infertility syndrome (DIS) was 36.75% (95% CI: 0.2122–0.5563) in DFNB16. The prevalence of biallelic deletions in STRC gene mutations was 70.85% (95% CI: 0.5824–0.8213).Conclusion: Variants in the STRC gene significantly contribute to mild–moderate hearing impairment. Moreover, biallelic deletions are a main feature of STRC mutations. Copy number variations associated with infertility should be seriously considered when investigating DFNB16.
AbstractTMC1 is a causative gene for both autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNA36) and autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB7/11). To date, 125 pathogenic variants in TMC1 have been reported. Most of the TMC1 variants are responsible for autosomal recessive hearing loss, with only 8 variants reported as causative for DFNA36. Here, we reported the prevalence of TMC1-associated hearing loss in a large non-syndromic hearing loss cohort of about 12,000 subjects. As a result, we identified 26 probands with TMC1-associated hearing loss, with the estimated prevalence of TMC1-associated hearing loss in the Japanese hearing loss cohort being 0.17% among all patients. Among the 26 probands with TMC1-associated hearing loss, 15 cases were identified from autosomal dominant hearing loss families. Based on the audiometric data from the probands, family members and previously reported cases, we evaluated hearing deterioration for DFNA36 patients. In addition, we performed haplotype analysis for 11 unrelated autosomal dominant hearing loss families carrying the same variant TMC1: NM_138691:c.1627G > A:p.Asp543Asn. The results clearly indicated that the same haplotype was present despite the families being unrelated, supporting the contention that this variant occurred by founder mutation.