Target Of Rapamycin
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 841-847
Meijiao Du ◽  
Zhengmei Wang ◽  
Geng Su ◽  
Yunxia Zhou ◽  
Chuan Luo

This study aims to analyze the role of mTOR inhibitor on the expression of miR-211 in rat brain tissue and the biological effect of miR-211 in attenuating seizure. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the number of seizures and the duration of single seizure were observed within 24 hours after intervention. The level of miR-211 in brain tissue was detected by RT qPCR, the apoptosis of nerve cells was assessed by TUNEL staining, the level of immune cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the level of serum inflammatory factors was determined by ELISA. The number of seizures and the duration of single seizure in the three groups treated by rapamycin within 24 hours were lower than those in the control group, and the symptom relief in group C was the best. After treatment, the expression level of miR-211 in the brain tissue of epileptic rats increased. TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis was obvious in epileptic rats. The anti apoptotic ability of group C was the most significant, followed by group D and group B. Compared with group A, the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells in brain tissue of group C were decreased, while the levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were lower in group C than those in control. In group C (n = 5), the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells were elevated, and the levels of immune related cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ were higher than those of rats without miR-211 inhibition. mTOR inhibitors can improve the local immune microenvironment, reduce the release of inflammatory factors, and finally decrease the frequency and duration of seizures by up regulating the level of miR-211 in rat brain tissue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 967
Ekaterina A. Trifonova ◽  
Zakhar S. Mustafin ◽  
Sergey A. Lashin ◽  
Alex V. Kochetov

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the early onset of communication and behavioral problems. ASD is highly heritable; however, environmental factors also play a considerable role in this disorder. A significant part of both syndromic and idiopathic autism cases could be attributed to disorders caused by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent translation deregulation. This narrative review analyzes both bioinformatic and experimental evidence that connects mTOR signaling to the maternal autoantibody-related (MAR) autism spectrum and autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders simultaneously. In addition, we reconstruct a network presenting the interactions between the mTOR signaling and eight MAR ASD genes coding for ASD-specific maternal autoantibody target proteins. The research discussed in this review demonstrates novel perspectives and validates the need for a subtyping of ASD on the grounds of pathogenic mechanisms. The utter necessity of designing ELISA-based test panels to identify all antibodies related to autism-like behavior is also considered.

Anna Sebestyén ◽  
Titanilla Dankó ◽  
Dániel Sztankovics ◽  
Dorottya Moldvai ◽  
Regina Raffay ◽  

AbstractDespite advancements in cancer management, tumor relapse and metastasis are associated with poor outcomes in many cancers. Over the past decade, oncogene-driven carcinogenesis, dysregulated cellular signaling networks, dynamic changes in the tissue microenvironment, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, protein expression within regulatory pathways, and their part in tumor progression are described in several studies. However, the complexity of metabolic enzyme expression is considerably under evaluated. Alterations in cellular metabolism determine the individual phenotype and behavior of cells, which is a well-recognized hallmark of cancer progression, especially in the adaptation mechanisms underlying therapy resistance. In metabolic symbiosis, cells compete, communicate, and even feed each other, supervised by tumor cells. Metabolic reprogramming forms a unique fingerprint for each tumor tissue, depending on the cellular content and genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental alterations of the developing cancer. Based on its sensing and effector functions, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is considered the master regulator of metabolic adaptation. Moreover, mTOR kinase hyperactivity is associated with poor prognosis in various tumor types. In situ metabolic phenotyping in recent studies highlights the importance of metabolic plasticity, mTOR hyperactivity, and their role in tumor progression. In this review, we update recent developments in metabolic phenotyping of the cancer ecosystem, metabolic symbiosis, and plasticity which could provide new research directions in tumor biology. In addition, we suggest pathomorphological and analytical studies relating to metabolic alterations, mTOR activity, and their associations which are necessary to improve understanding of tumor heterogeneity and expand the therapeutic management of cancer.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262576
Jiahui Xu ◽  
Gale M. Strasburg ◽  
Kent M. Reed ◽  
Sandra G. Velleman

Satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells responsible for post-hatch muscle growth through hypertrophy and in birds are sensitive to thermal stress during the first week after hatch. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is highly responsive to thermal stress in differentiating turkey pectoralis major (p. major) muscle SCs, regulates protein synthesis and the activities of SCs through a downstream effector, S6 kinase (S6K). The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effect of heat (43°C) and cold (33°C) stress on activity of the mTOR/S6K pathway in SCs isolated from the p. major muscle of one-week-old faster-growing modern commercial (NC) turkeys compared to those from slower-growing Randombred Control Line 2 (RBC2) turkeys, and 2) to assess the effect of mTOR knockdown on the proliferation, differentiation, and expression of myogenic regulatory factors of the SCs. Heat stress increased phosphorylation of both mTOR and S6K in both turkey lines, with greater increases observed in the RBC2 line. With cold stress, greater reductions in mTOR and S6K phosphorylation were observed in the NC line. Early knockdown of mTOR decreased proliferation, differentiation, and expression of myoblast determination protein 1 and myogenin in both lines independent of temperature, with the RBC2 line showing greater reductions in proliferation and differentiation than the NC line at 38° and 43°C. Proliferating SCs are more dependent on mTOR/S6K-mediated regulation than differentiating SCs. Thus, thermal stress can affect breast muscle hypertrophic potential by changing satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, in part, through the mTOR/S6K pathway in a growth-dependent manner. These changes may result in irreversible effects on the development and growth of the turkey p. major muscle.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Danielle de Paula Moreira ◽  
Angela May Suzuki ◽  
André Luiz Teles e Silva ◽  
Elisa Varella-Branco ◽  
Maria Cecília Zorél Meneghetti ◽  

Biallelic pathogenic variants in TBCK cause encephaloneuropathy, infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 3 (IHPRF3). The molecular mechanisms underlying its neuronal phenotype are largely unexplored. In this study, we reported two sisters, who harbored biallelic variants in TBCK and met diagnostic criteria for IHPRF3. We provided evidence that TBCK may play an important role in the early secretory pathway in neuroprogenitor cells (iNPC) differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Lack of functional TBCK protein in iNPC is associated with impaired endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi vesicle transport and autophagosome biogenesis, as well as altered cell cycle progression and severe impairment in the capacity of migration. Alteration in these processes, which are crucial for neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and cytoarchitecture organization, may represent an important causative mechanism of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in IHPRF3. Whether reduced mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is secondary to impaired TBCK function over other secretory transport regulators still needs further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2110917119
Zongyan Yu ◽  
Zhiwen Yang ◽  
Guoru Ren ◽  
Yingjie Wang ◽  
Xiang Luo ◽  

Amino acids are essential for cell growth and metabolism. Amino acid and growth factor signaling pathways coordinately regulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase in cell growth and organ development. While major components of amino acid signaling mechanisms have been identified, their biological functions in organ development are unclear. We aimed to understand the functions of the critically positioned amino acid signaling complex GAP activity towards Rags 2 (GATOR2) in brain development. GATOR2 mediates amino acid signaling to mTORC1 by directly linking the amino acid sensors for arginine and leucine to downstream signaling complexes. Now, we report a role of GATOR2 in oligodendrocyte myelination in postnatal brain development. We show that the disruption of GATOR2 complex by genetic deletion of meiosis regulator for oocyte development (Mios, encoding a component of GATOR2) selectively impairs the formation of myelinating oligodendrocytes, thus brain myelination, without apparent effects on the formation of neurons and astrocytes. The loss of Mios impairs cell cycle progression of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, leading to their reduced proliferation and differentiation. Mios deletion manifests a cell type–dependent effect on mTORC1 in the brain, with oligodendroglial mTORC1 selectively affected. However, the role of Mios/GATOR2 in oligodendrocyte formation and myelination involves mTORC1-independent function. This study suggests that GATOR2 coordinates amino acid and growth factor signaling to regulate oligodendrocyte myelination.

Junya Hasegawa ◽  
Emi Tokuda ◽  
Yao Yao ◽  
Takehiko Sasaki ◽  
Ken Inoki ◽  

Transcriptional factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of genes required for autophagy and lysosomal function. The nuclear localization of TFEB is blocked by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent phosphorylation of TFEB at multiple sites including Ser-211. Here we show that inhibition of PIKfyve, which produces phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate on endosomes and lysosomes, causes a loss of Ser-211 phosphorylation and concomitant nuclear localization of TFEB. We found that while mTORC1 activity toward S6K1, as well as other major mTORC1 substrates, is not impaired, PIKfyve inhibition specifically impedes the interaction of TFEB with mTORC1. This suggests that mTORC1 activity on TFEB is selectively inhibited due to loss of mTORC1 access to TFEB. In addition, we found that TFEB activation during inhibition of PIKfyve relies on the ability of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) but not calcineurin/PPP3, to dephosphorylate TFEB Ser-211. Thus, when PIKfyve is inhibited, PP2A is dominant over mTORC1 for control of TFEB phosphorylation at Ser-S211. Together these findings suggest that mTORC1 and PP2A have opposing roles on TFEB via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Ser-211, respectively, and further, that PIKfyve inhibits TFEB activity by facilitating mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation of TFEB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Lin Yang ◽  
Zhixin Zhang ◽  
Doudou Wang ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Ying Liu

Abstract: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a pivotal regulator of cell metabolism and growth. In the form of two different multi-protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR integrates cellular energy, nutrient and hormonal signals to regulate cellular metabolic homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aberrant mTOR signaling underlies its pathological conditions and end-organ complications. Substantial evidence suggests that two mTOR-mediated signaling schemes, mTORC1-p70S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and mTORC2-protein kinase B (AKT), play a critical role in insulin sensitivity and that their dysfunction contributes to development of T2DM. This review summaries our current understanding of the role of mTOR signaling in T2DM and its associated complications, as well as the potential use of mTOR inhibitors in treatment of T2DM.

2022 ◽  
Fei Huang ◽  
Yu Hui ◽  
Ang Li ◽  
Rishalaiti Tayier ◽  
Dilinaer Yaermaimaiti ◽  

Abstract Endemic arsenism is a major disease concern in China, with arsenic poisoning and induced potential lesions key issues on a global level. The liver is the main target organ where arsenic is metabolized; chronic exposure to arsenic-induced liver fibrosis is also closely related to autophagy, however, the exact mechanisms are remain unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of NaAsO2 on apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatic stellate cells(HSC). We established a fibrosis model in the HSC line, LX-2 which was exposed to NaAsO2 for 24h, 48h, and 72h. Cells were then transfected using an autophagy double-labeled RFP-GFP-LC3 adenoviral plasmid. Laser confocal microscopy indicated significant infection efficiencies and autophagy in LX-2. Flow cytometry was also used to investigate the effects of different NaAsO2 doses on apoptosis. NaAsO2 treatment upregulated the expression of autophagic markers, including microtubule-associated protein light chain A/B(LC3), ubiquitin binding protein(SQSTM-1/P62), autophagy related genes(ATGs), recombinant human autophagy effector protein (Beclin-1), and B cell lymphoma-2(BCL-2), but downregulated mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR). Also, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) expression was significantly upregulated in all NaAsO2 groups. Furthermore, mTOR silencing via 3-methyladenine(3-MA) altered NaAsO2 induced autophagy, LC3, Beclin-1, and SQSTM-1/P62 expression were all upregulated in both NaAsO2 and 3-MA-iAs groups. Altogether, NaAsO2 induced HSC autophagy via apoptotic pathways. 3-MA inhibited LX-2 activity and reduced NaAsO2-induced autophagy which may inhibit fibrosis progression caused by this toxin.

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