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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 77-87
Author(s):  
Takeshi Tada ◽  
Hiroe Ohnishi ◽  
Norio Yamamoto ◽  
Fumihiko Kuwata ◽  
Yasuyuki Hayashi ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Shaosong Xi ◽  
Yunguang Wang ◽  
Chenghao Wu ◽  
Weihua Peng ◽  
Ying Zhu ◽  
...  

BackgroundGut–microbiota–brain axis links the relationship between intestinal microbiota and sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). However, the key mediators between them remain unclear.MethodsMemory test was determined by Water maze. Intestinal flora was measured by 16S RNA sequencing. Neurotransmitter was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histopathology was determined by H&E, immunofluorescence (IF), and terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the proportion of macrophages.ResultsFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) relieved hippocampus impairment of SAE rats by inhibiting inflammation cytokine secretion, the expression of IBA-1 and neurotransmitter disturbance, and cell apoptosis and autophagy, accompanied by the reduced M1 polarization and M1 pro-inflammation factors produced by macrophages in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Actually, M1 polarization in SAE rats depended on intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-derived exosome. GW4869-initiated inhibition of exosome secretion notably abolished M1 polarization and the secretion of IL-1β. However, GW4869-mediated improvement of hippocampus impairment was counteracted by the delivery of recombinant interleukin (IL)-1β to hippocampus. Mechanistically, IEC-derived exosome induced the excessive circulating IL-1β produced by CP-R048 macrophages, which subsequently induced damage and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons H19-7 in an autophagy-dependent manner. And reactivation of autophagy facilitates intestinal IL-1β-mediated hippocampal neuron injury.ConclusionCollectively, intestinal flora disturbance induced the exosome release of IECs, which subsequently caused M1 polarization in MLNs and the accumulation of circulating IL-1β. Circulating IL-1β promoted the damage and apoptosis of neurons in an autophagy-dependent manner. Possibly, targeting intestinal flora or IEC-derived exosome contributes to the treatment of SAE.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenguang Yin ◽  
Andreas Liontos ◽  
Janine Koepke ◽  
Maroua Ghoul ◽  
Luciana Mazzocchi ◽  
...  

The tracheal epithelium is a primary target for pulmonary diseases as it provides a conduit for air flow between the environment and the lung lobes. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying airway epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation remain poorly understood. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling orchestrates communication between epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the lung, where it modulates stromal cell proliferation, differentiation and signaling back to the epithelium. Here, we reveal a new, autocrine function of Hh signaling in airway epithelial cells. Epithelial cell depletion of the ligand Sonic hedgehog (SHH) or its effector Smoothened (SMO) causes defects in both epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. In cultured primary human airway epithelial cells, Hh signaling inhibition also hampers cell proliferation and differentiation. Epithelial Hh function is mediated, at least in part, through transcriptional activation as Hh signaling inhibition leads to downregulation of cell-type specific transcription factor genes in both the mouse trachea and human airway epithelial cells. These results provide new insights into the role of Hh signaling in epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during airway development.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lauren Anton ◽  
Briana Ferguson ◽  
Elliot S. Friedman ◽  
Kristin Gerson ◽  
Amy G. Brown ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome is highly associated with vaginal health and disease in both pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. An overabundance of Gardnerella vaginalis in the CV space is commonly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes including bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexually transmitted diseases and preterm birth while the presence of Lactobacillus spp is often associated with reproductive health. While host-microbial interactions are hypothesized to contribute to CV health and disease, the mechanisms by which these interactions regulate CV epithelial function remain largely unknown. Results: Using an in vitro co-culture model, we assessed the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus and G. vaginalis on the CV epithelial barrier, the immune mediators that could be contributing to decreased barrier integrity and the immune signaling pathways regulating the immune response. G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, significantly increased epithelial cell death and decreased epithelial barrier integrity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. A G. vaginalis-mediated epithelial immune response including NFkB activation and proinflammatory cytokine release was initiated partially through TLR2 dependent signaling pathways. Additionally, investigation of the cytokine immune profile in human CV fluid showed distinctive clustering of cytokines by G. vaginalis abundance and birth outcome. Conclusions: The results of this study show both microbe- and epithelial cell-type specific effects on CV epithelial function. Altered epithelial barrier function through cell death and immune mediated mechanisms by G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, indicates that host epithelial cells respond to bacteria-associated signals, resulting in altered epithelial function and ultimately CV disease. Additionally, distinct immune signatures associated with G. vaginalis or birth outcome provide further evidence that host-microbial interactions may contribute significantly to the biological mechanisms regulating reproductive outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xingfa Han ◽  
Xu Xia ◽  
Yong Zhuo ◽  
Lun Hua ◽  
Guozhi Yu ◽  
...  

Abstract Backgroud: Salivary gland degeneration and dysfunction are common symptoms that occur after sex hormone deprivation, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Additionally, immunocastration, which causes drop of sex hormones, has been developed as an alternative to surgical castration, however whether it exerts similar effects as surgical castration on the salivary glands is unknown. Through histological and RNA-seq analysis, we assessed changes in morphology and transcriptome of submaxillary gland (SMG) in response to immunocastration (IM) versus surgical castration (bilateral orchiectomy, ORC). Results: Compared to intact males (EM), ORC caused a dramatical degeneration of SMG in rats, as evidenced by both decreased (P < 0.01) SMG weight and organ index, and by decreased (P < 0.01) quantity of SMG acini and ducts. IM had minimal effects (P > 0.05) on SMG weight and organ index, but it still caused degeneration (P < 0.05) of the acini and ducts. Even though, the quantity of both SMG acini and ducts was much higher (P < 0.001) in IM than in ORC. Functional enrichment analysis of the common regulated genes by ORC/IM revealed disrupted epithelial cell development, angiogenesis, anatomical structure morphogenesis and enhanced cell death are associated with SMG degeneration in deprivation of androgens. Integrated data analysis shown that there existed a selective hyperfunction of SMG ribosome and mitochondrion in ORC but not in IM, which might be associated with more severe degeneration of SMG in ORC than in IM. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that both surgical castration and immunocastration caused SMG degeneration by disrupting epithelial cell development, angiogenesis, anatomical structure morphogenesis and enhancing cell death. But, surgical castration selectively induced hyperfunction of SMG ribosome and mitochondrion, thus causing more severe degeneration of SMG than immunocastration.


2022 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
pp. 74-79
Author(s):  
Hideki Horie ◽  
◽  
Osamu Handa ◽  
Yuji Naito ◽  
Atsushi Majima ◽  
...  

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christopher J. Day ◽  
Rachael L. Hardison ◽  
Belinda L. Spillings ◽  
Jessica Poole ◽  
Joseph A. Jurcisek ◽  
...  

In women, the lower female reproductive tract is the primary site for HIV infection. How HIV traverses the epithelium to infect CD4 T cells in the submucosa is ill-defined.


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