Epithelial Cell
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 100697
Marion C. Bichet ◽  
Ruzeen Patwa ◽  
Jeremy J. Barr
In Vitro ◽  

2021 ◽  
Yuanyuan Jiang ◽  
Yuan Ding ◽  
Shuzhen Liu ◽  
Bing Luo

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a type IV herpesvirus that widely infects the vast majority of adults, and establishes a latent infection pattern in host cells to escape the clearance of immune system. The virus is intimately associated with the occurrence and progression of lymphomas and epithelial cell cancers. EBV latent membrane proteins (LMPs) can assist its immune escape by downregulating host immune response. Besides EBV, LMPs have important effects on the functions of exosomes and autophagy, which also help EBV to escape immune surveillance. These escape mechanisms may provide conditions for further development of EBV-associated tumors. In this article, we discussed the potential functions of EBV-encoded LMPs in promoting immune escape.

Ni-Hao Gu ◽  
Guo-Jing Li ◽  
Bing-Xin Yang ◽  
Min You ◽  
Yu Lin ◽  

Adenomyosis (AM) is a disease in which endometrial tissue invades the myometrium and has a 10–60% prevalence in reproductive-aged women. TSC2 regulates autophagy via mTOR1 signalling in colorectal cancer and endometrial carcinoma. Dysregulation of autophagy is implicated in adenomyosis pathogenesis. However, whether TSC2 participates in adenomyosis via autophagy remains obscure. Here, we found that the expression of TSC2 in adenomyosis was significantly decreased than that in normal endometrium during the secretory phase. Moreover, TSC2 and autophagy marker expression was significantly lower in ectopic lesions than in eutopic samples. TSC2 downregulation inhibited autophagy through mTOR1 signalling pathway activation in endometrial cells, leading to excessive proliferation, migration, and EMT; TSC2 overexpression induced the opposite effects. Rapamycin treatment suppressed cell proliferation, migration and EMT in the absence of TSC2. In parallel, an autophagy-specific inhibitor (SAR-405) restored migration and EMT under rapamycin treatment in TSC2-knockdown Ishikawa cells. Finally, SAR-405 treatment promoted EMT and migration of overexpressing cells. Collectively, our results suggest that TSC2 controls endometrial epithelial cell migration and EMT by regulating mTOR1-autophagy axis activation and that hypo-expression of TSC2 in the endometrium might promote adenomyosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Hua Zhang ◽  
Yuan Geng ◽  
Chunhui Sun ◽  
Jin Yu

Background. The abnormal expression and prognosis prediction of epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) in gastric cancer (GC) has been reported. However, the effect of ECT2 on 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) resistance in GC is unclear. This research aims to solve the abovementioned problems. Methods. Gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. Cell viability was evaluated by the colony formation assay, MTT assay, and flow cytometric analysis. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to detect cell metastasis. Results. Upregulation of ECT2 was found in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) and GC tissues. In addition, high ECT2 expression can predict adverse clinical outcomes in GC patients. More importantly, ECT2 knockdown weakened the resistance of 5-FU in GC cells. ECT2 silencing reduced the cell migratory and invasive abilities of GC cells treated with 5-FU. We also found that downregulation of ECT2 increased 5-FU sensitivity in GC cells by downregulating P-gp, MRP1, and Bcl-2. Conclusion. Upregulation of ECT2 can predict adverse clinical outcomes and increase 5-FU resistance in GC patients.

Bhagyalakshmi Atla ◽  
Uma Prasad ◽  
Venkata Satya Kartheek Botta ◽  
Uma Namballa ◽  
Lahari Pujari ◽  

Background: Pap smear is the conventional screening procedure for cervical cancer. Liquid based cytology has been developed as a cost effective alternative as it has a short screening time, better morphology and clean background while also providing residual material to test for HPV DNA. Therefore this study is undertaken to know the role of Liquid-based cytology in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant lesions of cervix. Objectives of current study were to study the distribution of various cervical lesions on liquid-based cytology and compare them with conventional Pap smears. To know the role of liquid-based cytology in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant lesions of cervixMethods: This study included 200 women attending to gynaecology OPD and the samples were taken for both conventional cytology and liquid based cytology. The smears were studied in detail and were interpreted as per The Bethesda system 2014 of reporting pap smears and results are recorded and compared.Results: The commonest cervical lesions on pap smears by liquid-based cytology are NILM-reactive changes (N=92, 46%), NILM Candida infection is seen in 9 cases (4.5%) and trichomonas vaginalis infection in 5 cases (2.5%). Unsatisfactory smears on LBC is less when compared to conventional smears as the coefficient of correlation is significant with p value of 0.000422 (<0.05). The number of cases with a diagnosis of ASCUS is reported more in liquid-based cytology (9 cases) when compared to conventional Pap (8 cases). The number of cases with diagnosis of HSIL, SCC is reported more in liquid based cytology (7 cases) when compared to conventional Pap (4 cases). Epithelial cell abnormality were easily diagnosed on LBC smears with significant p value of 0.002414 (<0.05).Conclusions: Liquid-based cytology has advantages of fewer unsatisfactory smears and better detection of epithelial cell abnormalities when compared to conventional Pap smears. LBC is better for the screening of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix even though it is costly.

Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy ◽  
Hector H Palacios ◽  
Rohit Setlem ◽  
Mariano Colon Caraballo ◽  
Kelvin Li ◽  

Abstract During gestation, the female reproductive tract must maintain pregnancy while concurrently preparing for parturition. Here, we explore the transitions in gene expression and protein turnover (fractional synthesis rates [FSR]) by which the cervix implements a transition from rigid to compliant. Shifts in gene transcription to achieve immune tolerance and alter epithelial cell programs begin in early pregnancy. Subsequently, in mid-to-late pregnancy transcriptional programs emerge that promote structural reorganization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Stable isotope labeling revealed a striking slowdown of overall FSRs across the proteome on gestation day 6 that reverses in mid-to-late pregnancy. An exception was soluble fibrillar collagens and proteins of collagen assembly, which exhibit high turnover in non-pregnant cervix compared to other tissues and FSRs that continue throughout pregnancy. This finding provides a mechanism to explain how cross-linked collagen is replaced by newly synthesized, less-cross-linked collagens, which allows increased tissue compliance during parturition. The rapid transition requires a reservoir of newly synthesized, less cross-linked collagens, which is assured by the high FSR of soluble collagens in the cervix. These findings suggest a previously unrecognized form of “metabolic flexibility” for ECM in the cervix that underlies rapid transformation in compliance to allow parturition.

2021 ◽  
Wentao Fan ◽  
Chenchen Ding ◽  
Shuihui Liu ◽  
Xiaona Gao ◽  
Xiaofei Shen ◽  

Abstract Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and NLRP6 are highly expressed in intestinal tissues. Loss of ERβ and NLRP6 exacerbate colitis in mouse models. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we report that ERβ attenuates inflammation by inducing NLRP6-mediated autophagy. Specifically, ERβ directly activates the NLRP6 gene expression via binding to estrogen responsive element (ERE) of Nlrp6 gene promoter. ERβ also physically interacts with the NLRP6 nucleotide-binding domain and promotes NLRP6 inflammasome assembly. The ERβ-NLRP6 axis then interacts with multiple autophagy-related proteins including ULK1, BECN1, ATG16L1, LC3B, p62 to affect the autophagosome biogenesis and control autophagic flux. Finally, NLRP6-mediated autophagy suppresses the inflammatory response by promoting the K48-linked polyubiquitination of ASC, Casp-1 p20, IL-1β, TNF-α, and prohibitin-2. Thus, ERβ-NLRP6 direct an anti-inflammatory response by promoting autophagy. Our work uncovers an ERβ-NLRP6-autophagy pathway as an unrecognized regulatory mechanism that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and facilitates tissue repair in colitis.

2021 ◽  
Catherine Weathered ◽  
Kelly Pennington ◽  
Patricio Escalante ◽  
Elsje Pienaar

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), is known for colonizing and infecting humans following inhalation of the bacteria. MAC pulmonary disease is notoriously difficult to treat and prone to recurrence. Both the incidence and prevalence MAC pulmonary disease have been increasing globally. MAC is well known to form biofilms in the environment, and in vitro, these biofilms have been shown to aid MAC in epithelial cell invasion, protect MAC from phagocytosis, and cause premature apoptosis in macrophages. In vivo, the system of interactions between MAC, biofilms and host macrophages is complex, difficult to replicate in vitro and in animal models, has not been fully characterized. Here we present a three-dimensional agent-based model of a lung airway to help understand how these interactions evolve in the first 14 days post-bacterial inhalation. We parameterized the model using published data and performed uncertainty analysis to characterize outcomes and parameters effects on those outcomes. Model results show diverse outcomes, including wide ranges of macrophage recruitment levels, and bacterial loads and phenotype distribution. Though most bacteria are phagocytosed by macrophages and remain intracellular, there are also many simulations in which extracellular bacteria continue to drive the colonization and infection. Initial parameters dictating host immune levels, bacterial loads introduced to the airway, and biofilm conditions have significant and lasting impacts on the course of these results. Additionally, though macrophage recruitment is key for suppressing bacterial loads, there is evidence of significant excess recruitment that fail to impact bacterial numbers. These results highlight a need and identify a path for further exploration into the inhalation events in MAC infection. Early infection dynamics could have lasting impacts on the development of nodular bronchiectatic or fibrocavitary disease as well as inform possible preventative and treatment intervention targeting biofilm-macrophage interactions.

EBioMedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 70 ◽  
pp. 103500
Huarong Chen ◽  
Weixin Liu ◽  
Yifei Wang ◽  
Dabin Liu ◽  
Liuyang Zhao ◽  

Kavita Narwani ◽  
Jeremy Stark ◽  
Daileen Cortez ◽  
Isaac Yang ◽  
Christian Au ◽  

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