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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xianjun Feng ◽  
Jiajun Ma ◽  
Zhiqian Liu ◽  
Xuan Li ◽  
Yinghua Wu ◽  

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites that play important defensive roles in cruciferous plants. Chinese flowering cabbage, one of the most common vegetable crops, is rich in GSLs and thus has the potential to reduce the risk of cancer in humans. Many genes that are involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism have been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; however, few studies investigated the genes related to GSL biosynthesis and metabolism in Chinese flowering cabbage. In the present study, the GSL composition and content in three different organs of Chinese flowering cabbage (leaf, stalk, and flower bud) were determined. Our results showed that the total GSL content in flower buds was significantly higher than in stalks and leaves, and aliphatic GSLs were the most abundant GSL type. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the variations of GSL content, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in GSL biosynthesis and transport in different tissues of Chinese flowering cabbage using RNA sequencing; the expression levels of most genes were found to be consistent with the pattern of total GSL content. Correlation and consistency analysis of differentially expressed genes from different organs with the GSL content revealed that seven genes (Bra029966, Bra012640, Bra016787, Bra011761, Bra006830, Bra011759, and Bra029248) were positively correlated with GSL content. These findings provide a molecular basis for further elucidating GSL biosynthesis and transport in Chinese flowering cabbage.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Kenneth Sandoval ◽  
Grace P. McCormack

Actinoporins are proteinaceous toxins known for their ability to bind to and create pores in cellular membranes. This quality has generated interest in their potential use as new tools, such as therapeutic immunotoxins. Isolated historically from sea anemones, genes encoding for similar actinoporin-like proteins have since been found in a small number of other animal phyla. Sequencing and de novo assembly of Irish Haliclona transcriptomes indicated that sponges also possess similar genes. An exhaustive analysis of publicly available sequencing data from other sponges showed that this is a potentially widespread feature of the Porifera. While many sponge proteins possess a sequence similarity of 27.70–59.06% to actinoporins, they show consistency in predicted structure. One gene copy from H. indistincta has significant sequence similarity to sea anemone actinoporins and possesses conserved residues associated with the fundamental roles of sphingomyelin recognition, membrane attachment, oligomerization, and pore formation, indicating that it may be an actinoporin. Phylogenetic analyses indicate frequent gene duplication, no distinct clade for sponge-derived proteins, and a stronger signal towards actinoporins than similar proteins from other phyla. Overall, this study provides evidence that a diverse array of Porifera represents a novel source of actinoporin-like proteins which may have biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 189
Ignacio Vasquez ◽  
Ahmed Hossain ◽  
Hajarooba Gnanagobal ◽  
Katherinne Valderrama ◽  
Briony Campbell ◽  

Aeromonas salmonicida is a global distributed Gram-negative teleost pathogen, affecting mainly salmonids in fresh and marine environments. A. salmonicida strains are classified as typical or atypical depending on their origin of isolation and phenotype. Five subspecies have been described, where A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the only typical subspecies, and the subsp. achromogenes, masoucida, smithia, and pectinolytica are considered atypical. Genomic differences between A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and their relationship with the current classification have not been explored. Here, we sequenced and compared the complete closed genomes of four virulent strains to elucidate their molecular diversity and pathogenic evolution using the more accurate genomic information so far. Phenotypes, biochemical, and enzymatic profiles were determined. PacBio and MiSeq sequencing platforms were utilized for genome sequencing. Comparative genomics showed that atypical strains belong to the subsp. salmonicida, with 99.55 ± 0.25% identity with each other, and are closely related to typical strains. The typical strain A. salmonicida J223 is closely related to typical strains, with 99.17% identity with the A. salmonicida A449. Genomic differences between atypical and typical strains are strictly related to insertion sequences (ISs) activity. The absence and presence of genes encoding for virulence factors, transcriptional regulators, and non-coding RNAs are the most significant differences between typical and atypical strains that affect their phenotypes. Plasmidome plays an important role in A. salmonicida virulence and genome plasticity. Here, we determined that typical strains harbor a larger number of plasmids and virulence-related genes that contribute to its acute virulence. In contrast, atypical strains harbor a single, large plasmid and a smaller number of virulence genes, reflected by their less acute virulence and chronic infection. The relationship between phenotype and A. salmonicida subspecies’ taxonomy is not evident. Comparative genomic analysis based on completed genomes revealed that the subspecies classification is more of a reflection of the ecological niche occupied by bacteria than their divergences at the genomic level except for their accessory genome.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Clifton P. Bueno de Mesquita ◽  
Jinglie Zhou ◽  
Susanna Theroux ◽  
Susannah G. Tringe

Aerobic bacteria that degrade methylphosphonates and produce methane as a byproduct have emerged as key players in marine carbon and phosphorus cycles. Here, we present two new draft genome sequences of the genus Marivita that were assembled from metagenomes from hypersaline former industrial salterns and compare them to five other Marivita reference genomes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that both of these metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) represent new species in the genus. Average nucleotide identities to the closest taxon were <85%. The MAGs were assembled with SPAdes, binned with MetaBAT, and curated with scaffold extension and reassembly. Both genomes contained the phnCDEGHIJLMP suite of genes encoding the full C-P lyase pathway of methylphosphonate degradation and were significantly more abundant in two former industrial salterns than in nearby reference and restored wetlands, which have lower salinity levels and lower methane emissions than the salterns. These organisms contain a variety of compatible solute biosynthesis and transporter genes to cope with high salinity levels but harbor only slightly acidic proteomes (mean isoelectric point of 6.48).

2022 ◽  
Zheng Zhang ◽  
Penghui He ◽  
Shiying Hu ◽  
Yanqing Yu ◽  
Xiaoting Wang ◽  

Abstract Objective: The production of some bio-chemicals affected by the cell growth. This study aimed at promoting the cell growth by overexpressing the synthesis of peptidoglycans tetrapeptide tail components to improve poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production. Results: L-alanine, D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine are primary precursors for the synthesis of peptidoglycans. The addition of L-alanine and D-alanine significantly increased both the cell growth and production of γ-PGA. Then, several genes encoding key enzymes for L/D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine biosynthesis were overexpressed respectively, including ald (encoding alanine dehydrogenase), dal (encoding alanine racemase) and ddl (encoding D-alanine ligase). The results showed that the overexpression of genes ald , dal and ddl increased the production of γ-PGA by 19.72%, 15.91% and 60.90%, and increased the microbial biomass by 15.58%, 18.34% and 49.85%, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated that the overexpression of genes ald , dal and ddl increased γ-PGA production mainly by enhancing cell growth rather than providing more precursors. Conclusions: This work illustrated the importance of the L/D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine synthesis to the cell growth and the high yield of γ-PGA, and provided an effective strategy for producing γ-PGA .

2022 ◽  
Jimmy Hom ◽  
Theodoros Karnavas ◽  
Emily Hartman ◽  
Julien Papoin ◽  
Yuefeng Tang ◽  

Ribosomopathies are a class of disorders caused by defects in the structure or function of the ribosome and characterized by tissue-specific abnormalities. Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) arises from different mutations, predominantly in genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs). Apart from the anemia, skeletal defects are among the most common anomalies observed in patients with DBA, but they are virtually restricted to radial ray and other upper limb defects. What leads to these site-specific skeletal defects in DBA remains a mystery. Using a novel mouse model for RP haploinsufficiency, we observed specific, differential defects of the limbs. Using complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that reduced WNT signaling and subsequent increased β-catenin degradation in concert with increased expression of p53 contribute to mesenchymal lineage failure. We observed differential defects in the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the forelimb versus the hind limbs of the RP haploinsufficient mice that persisted after birth and were partially rescued by allelic reduction of Trp53. These defects are associated with a global decrease in protein translation in RP haploinsufficient MSCs, with the effect more pronounced in cells isolated from the forelimbs. Together these results demonstrate translational differences inherent to the MSC, explaining the site-specific skeletal defects observed in DBA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009828
Benjamin J. Hulme ◽  
Kathrin K. Geyer ◽  
Josephine E. Forde-Thomas ◽  
Gilda Padalino ◽  
Dylan W. Phillips ◽  

α-galactosidase (α-GAL) and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGAL) are two glycosyl hydrolases responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating glycan substrates on proteins and lipids. Mutations in the human genes encoding either enzyme lead to neurological and neuromuscular impairments seen in both Fabry- and Schindler/Kanzaki- diseases. Here, we investigate whether the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis, also contains functionally important α-GAL and α-NAGAL proteins. As infection, parasite maturation and host interactions are all governed by carefully-regulated glycosylation processes, inhibiting S. mansoni’s α-GAL and α-NAGAL activities could lead to the development of novel chemotherapeutics. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of putative α-GAL/α-NAGAL protein types showed Smp_089290 to be the only S. mansoni protein to contain the functional amino acid residues necessary for α-GAL/α-NAGAL substrate cleavage. Both α-GAL and α-NAGAL enzymatic activities were higher in females compared to males (p<0.05; α-NAGAL > α-GAL), which was consistent with smp_089290’s female biased expression. Spatial localisation of smp_089290 revealed accumulation in parenchymal cells, neuronal cells, and the vitellaria and mature vitellocytes of the adult schistosome. siRNA-mediated knockdown (>90%) of smp_089290 in adult worms significantly inhibited α-NAGAL activity when compared to control worms (siLuc treated males, p<0.01; siLuc treated females, p<0.05). No significant reductions in α-GAL activities were observed in the same extracts. Despite this, decreases in α-NAGAL activities correlated with a significant inhibition in adult worm motility as well as in egg production. Programmed CRISPR/Cas9 editing of smp_089290 in adult worms confirmed the egg reduction phenotype. Based on these results, Smp_089290 was determined to act predominantly as an α-NAGAL (hereafter termed SmNAGAL) in schistosome parasites where it participates in coordinating movement and oviposition processes. Further characterisation of SmNAGAL and other functionally important glycosyl hydrolases may lead to the development of a novel anthelmintic class of compounds.

Nicole C Soal ◽  
Martin H A Coetzee ◽  
Magriet A van der Nest ◽  
Almuth Hammerbacher ◽  
Brenda D Wingfield

Abstract Fungal species of the Ceratocystidaceae grow on their host plants using a variety of different lifestyles, from saprophytic to highly pathogenic. Although many genomes of fungi in the Ceratocystidaceae are publicly available, it is not known how the genes that encode catechol dioxygenases (CDOs), enzymes involved in the degradation of phenolic plant defence compounds, differ among members of the Ceratocystidaceae. The aim of this study was therefore to identify and characterize the genes encoding CDOs in the genomes of Ceratocystidaceae representatives. We found that genes encoding CDOs are more abundant in pathogenic necrotrophic species of the Ceratocystidaceae and less abundant in saprophytic species. The loss of the CDO genes and the associated 3-oxoadipate catabolic pathway appears to have occurred in a lineage-specific manner. Taken together, this study revealed a positive association between CDO gene copy number and fungal lifestyle in Ceratocystidaceae representatives.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Noah Isakov

Reproduction in certain deep-sea anglerfishes involves the permanent attachment of dwarf males to much larger females and fusion of their tissues leading to the establishment of a shared circulatory system. This unusual phenomenon of sexual parasitism enables anglerfishes to maximize reproductive success in the vast and deep oceans, where females and males otherwise rarely meet. An even more surprising phenomenon relates to the observation that joining of genetically disparate male and female anglerfishes does not evoke a strong anti-graft immune rejection response, which occurs in vertebrates following allogeneic parabiosis. Recent studies demonstrated that the evolutionary processes that led to the unique mating strategy of anglerfishes coevolved with genetic changes that resulted in loss of functional genes encoding critical components of the adaptive immune system. These genetic alterations enabled anglerfishes to tolerate the histoincompatible tissue antigens of their mate and prevent the occurrence of reciprocal graft rejection responses. While the exact mechanisms by which anglerfishes defend themselves against pathogens have not yet been deciphered, it is speculated that during evolution, anglerfishes adopted new immune strategies that compensate for the loss of B and T lymphocyte functions and enable them to resist infection by pathogens.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Lin Chou ◽  
Yu-Chen Lin ◽  
Mindia Haryono ◽  
Mary Nia M. Santos ◽  
Shu-Ting Cho ◽  

Abstract Background Many named species as defined in current bacterial taxonomy correspond to species complexes. Uncertainties regarding the organization of their genetic diversity challenge research efforts. We utilized the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex (a.k.a. Agrobacterium biovar 1), a taxon known for its phytopathogenicity and applications in transformation, as a study system and devised strategies for investigating genome diversity and evolution of species complexes. Results We utilized 35 genome assemblies, including 14 newly generated ones, to achieve a phylogenetically balanced sampling of A. tumefaciens. Our genomic analysis suggested that the 10 genomospecies described previously are distinct biological species and supported a quantitative guideline for species delineation. Furthermore, our inference of gene content and core-genome phylogeny allowed for investigations of genes critical in fitness and ecology. For the type VI secretion system (T6SS) involved in interbacterial competition and thought to be conserved, we detected multiple losses and one horizontal gene transfer. For the tumor-inducing plasmids (pTi) and pTi-encoded type IV secretion system (T4SS) that are essential for agrobacterial phytopathogenicity, we uncovered novel diversity and hypothesized their involvement in shaping this species complex. Intriguingly, for both T6SS and T4SS, genes encoding structural components are highly conserved, whereas extensive diversity exists for genes encoding effectors and other proteins. Conclusions We demonstrate that the combination of a phylogeny-guided sampling scheme and an emphasis on high-quality assemblies provides a cost-effective approach for robust analysis in evolutionary genomics. We show that the T6SS VgrG proteins involved in specific effector binding and delivery can be classified into distinct types based on domain organization. The co-occurrence patterns of VgrG-associated domains and the neighboring genes that encode different chaperones/effectors can be used to infer possible interacting partners. Similarly, the associations between plant host preference and the pTi type among these strains can be used to infer phenotype-genotype correspondence. Our strategies for multi-level investigations at scales that range from whole genomes to intragenic domains and phylogenetic depths from between- to within-species are applicable to other bacteria. Furthermore, modularity observed in the molecular evolution of genes and domains is useful for inferring functional constraints and informing experimental works.

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