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Geosciences ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 290
Author(s):  
Ana Dura ◽  
Theo J. Mertzimekis ◽  
Paraskevi Nomikou ◽  
Andreas Gondikas ◽  
Martín Manuel Gómez Míguez ◽  
...  

Almost three-quarters of known volcanic activity on Earth occurs in underwater locations. The presence of active hydrothermal vent fields in such environments is a potential natural hazard for the environment, society, and economy. Despite its importance for risk assessment and risk mitigation, the monitoring of volcanic activity is impeded by the remoteness and the extreme conditions of many underwater volcanoes. The morphology and the activity of the submarine caldera, Avyssos, at the northern part of Nisyros volcano in the South Aegean Sea (Greece), were studied using a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The recorded time series of temperature and conductivity over the submarine volcano have been analyzed in terms of the Generalized Moments Method. This type of analysis can be used as an indicator for the state of activity of a submarine volcano. Here, we expand the work conducted for the first time in 2018. We present the findings of the geological exploration and the mathematical analysis, obtained from the data collected in October 2010. The temperature and conductivity time series show minor fluctuations in a rather stable environment. Based on these results, the impact of developing appropriate mechanisms and policies to avoid the associated natural hazard is expected to be important.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yue Gao ◽  
Guozhi Cao ◽  
Ping Ni ◽  
Yue Tang ◽  
Yetong Liu ◽  
...  

AbstractWith the continuous occurrence of natural disasters, natural hazard triggered technological accident (Natech) risks also follow. At present, many countries have performed much research on Natech risks. However, there is still a lack of Natech research at the regional or watershed level in China. The Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) is not only an industrially intensive development area but also an area with frequent natural disasters. In this study, we selected the YREB as a typical case to study the Natech risk triggered by floods, geological disasters, and typhoons at the regional or watershed level. Four types of risk indicators representing risk sources, natural hazard factors, control levels, and vulnerabilities were developed to assess the spatial patterns of the Natech risks of the YREB. The results show that the Natech risk triggered by floods and typhoons is more serious in eastern area and central area than in western zone and that the Natech risk triggered by geological disasters is more serious in the west part. Approximately 7.85% of the areas are at relatively high-risk and above the Natech risk level based on the comprehensive assessment of three types of Natech risks. The combined population of these areas accounts for approximately 15.67% of the whole YREB, and the combined GDP accounts for approximately 25.41%. It can be predicted that the occurrence of Natech risks in these areas will cause serious harm to both the people and the economy. This work will provide the basis and key management direction for Natech risk management in the YREB.


Risk Analysis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mitchell Scovell ◽  
Connar McShane ◽  
Anne Swinbourne ◽  
Daniel Smith

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Hauser ◽  
Megan Fleming

Natural disasters are often described as having antagonistic qualities (e.g., wildfires ravage). The information deficit model presumes that when people assess the risk of weather hazards, they ignore irrelevant metaphoric descriptors. However, metaphoric frames impact reasoning. The current research assessed whether antagonist metaphors for natural disasters impact perceptions of the risk they pose. Three studies (N = 1,936) demonstrated that participants forecasted an antagonist-framed natural hazard as being more severe, and intended to evacuate more often, than a literal-framed natural hazard. Thus, the metaphorical language used to discuss natural disasters deserves consideration in the development of effective risk communication.


Author(s):  
Bashir Ahmad ◽  
Akhtar Alam ◽  
M. Sultan Bhat ◽  
Khurshid Ahmad Bhat ◽  
Jeelani Inaam ul Haq ◽  
...  

AbstractDisaster scenarios are constructed by integrating natural hazard phenomena and social science sources of information. We profiled 51 natural hazard events of nineteenth century Kashmir that provide insights into the impacts of varying degree of severity that spread through the socioeconomic and political systems, influenced adaptation, and increased the consequences of the resulting disasters. The root cause of these disasters was embedded in the social, natural, and political economic systems of their time, where vulnerabilities overlapped and interacted periodically with successive colonial regimes and acted as tipping points. The combined effect of successive colonial regimes, inept administration, rigid political economy, and natural hazards made the situation go from bad to worse and reduced Kashmir to the depths of distress and subjugation. Over the arc of the nineteenth century, a series of disasters led the Kashmiri population to learn how to live with disasters and minimize risk, bringing about the evolution of social and environmental knowledge. Understanding the natural hazard vulnerability of the Kashmir Valley through archival narratives can help in scenario building to translate findings into formats that reduce related risk now as it did then. The resulting information can be useful for regional design, planning, and policy responses to promote disaster risk reduction.


2021 ◽  
Vol 60 ◽  
pp. 102378
Author(s):  
Lingyao Li ◽  
Michelle Bensi ◽  
Qingbin Cui ◽  
Gregory B. Baecher ◽  
You Huang

Author(s):  
Ben Edwards ◽  
Matthew Gray ◽  
Judith B. Borja

AbstractExposure to multiple natural hazard-related disasters will become more common due to climate change. This article reports on the development and validation of a cumulative measure of exposure to natural hazard-related disasters (2013–2017) at the area level, and an individual-level measure of disaster impact using data from the Longitudinal Cohort Study on the Filipino Child and linked data from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT). Caregiver reports of cumulative exposure to disasters had statistically significant associations with disasters reported by neighborhood officials and with disasters in EM-DAT. Using ecometric techniques we generated a reliable community average measure of exposure to natural hazard-related disasters. Based on neighbor but not individual self-reports this exogenous measure of disaster exposure in the local area was more strongly related to EM-DAT and official neighborhood reports than individual reports. To capture household variation we developed an individual-level measure of disaster impacts. Disaster impact was associated with measures of exposure (individual and community average), community ratings by officials, and EM-DAT but only moderately associated with the community average exposure. Both the community average and disaster impacts measures were associated with household income and the adequacy of income in households.


2021 ◽  
pp. 251484862110198
Author(s):  
Jessica K Weir ◽  
Timothy Neale ◽  
Elizabeth A Clarke

Unrealistic expectations in society about science reducing and even eliminating the risk of natural hazards contrasts with the chaotic forces of these events, but such expectations persist nonetheless. Risk mitigation practitioners must grapple with them, including in the cycles of blame and inquiry that follow natural hazard events. We present a synthesis of such practitioner experiences from three consequential bushfire and flood risk landscapes in Australia in which science was being used to change policy and/or practice. We show how they chose to work with, counter and recalibrate unrealistic expectations of science, as well as embrace socionatural complexity and a consequential nature. The mismatch between the challenges faced by the sector and the unrealistic expectations of science, generated more stressful work conditions, less effective risk mitigation, and less effective use of research monies. In response, we argue for structural and procedural change to address legacy pathways that automatically privilege science, especially in relation to nature, with broader relevance for other environmental issues. This is not to dismiss or debase science, but to better understand its use and utility, including how facts and values relate.


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