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2022 ◽  
Farah Tahsin ◽  
Kristen A. Morin ◽  
Frank Vojtesek ◽  
David C. Marsh

Abstract Background The cascade of care framework is an effective way to measure attrition at various stages of engagement in Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT). The primary objective of the study was to describe the cascade of care for individuals who have accessed OAT from a network of specialized addiction clinics in Ontario, Canada. The secondary objectives were to evaluate correlates associated with retention in OAT at various stages and the impact of patients' location of the residence on retention in OAT. Design: A multi-clinic retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical record (EMR) data from the largest network of OAT clinics in Canada (70 clinics) from 2014-2020. Study participants included all individuals who received OAT from the network of clinics during the study period. Measurements: In this study, four stages of the cascade of care framework were operationalized to identify treatment engagement patterns, including patients retained within 90 days, 90 to 365 days, one to two years, and more than two years. Correlates associated with OAT retention for 90 days, 90 to 365 days, one to two years, and more than two years were also evaluated and compared across rural and urban areas in northern and southern Ontario. Results A total of 32,487 individuals were included in the study. Compared to individuals who were retained in OAT for 90 days, individuals who were retained for 90 to 365 days, one to two years, or more than two years were more likely to have a higher number of treatment attempts, a higher number of average monthly urine drug screening and a lower proportion of positive urine drug screening results for other drug use. Conclusion Distinct sociodemographic and clinical factors are likely to influence treatment retention at various stages of engagement along the OAT continuum. Research is required to determine if tailored strategies specific to people at different stages of engagement have the potential to improve outcomes of OAT.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Wisam Mohammed ◽  
Nicole Shantz ◽  
Lucas Neil ◽  
Tom Townend ◽  
Adrian Adamescu ◽  

The Region of Waterloo is the third fastest growing region in Southern Ontario in Canada with a population of 619,000 as of 2019. However, only one air quality monitoring station, located in a city park in Kitchener, Ontario, is currently being used to assess the air quality of the region. In September 2020, a network of AQMesh Multisensor Mini Monitoring Stations (pods) were installed near elementary schools in Kitchener located near different types of emission source. Data analysis using a custom-made long-distance scaling software showed that the levels of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), ground level ozone (O3), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were traffic related. These pollutants were used to calculate the Air Quality Health Index-Plus (AQHI+) at each location, highlighting the inability of the provincial air quality monitoring station to detect hotspot areas in the city. The case study presented here quantified the impact of the 2021 summer wildfires on the local air quality at a high time resolution (15-min). The findings in this article show that these multisensor pods are a viable alternative to expensive research-grade equipment. The results highlight the need for networks of local scale air quality measurements, particularly in fast-growing cities in Canada.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
pp. 103324
Bonnie Glencross ◽  
Gary Warrick ◽  
Taylor Smith ◽  
Tracy L. Prowse

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 67-84
Carl E. James ◽  
Gillian Parekh

According to Statistics Canada, during this decade (2019–2028) about 75% of new jobs will require a post-secondary education (Government of Canada, 2017). This study explores a unique dataset that follows students (n = 11,417) from a large urban school district to a local university in Southern Ontario. Using both descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression and a framework of categorical inequality (Domina et al., 2017), we examine the academic trajectories of students—particularly of Black students. Findings show that, compared to their peers, neither high school nor university programs provide Black students with the kinds of educational experiences needed for university graduation and academic success that wouldenable them to realize their fullest social and economic potentials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 973-984
M. Taylor Perkins ◽  
Tetyana Zhebentyayeva ◽  
Paul H. Sisco ◽  
J. Hill Craddock

Abstract— The genus Castanea in North America contains several tree and shrub taxa of conservation concern. The two species within the group, American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and chinquapin (C. pumila sensu lato), display remarkable morphological diversity across their distributions in the eastern United States and southern Ontario. Previous investigators have hypothesized that hybridization between C. dentata and C. pumila has played an important role in generating morphological variation in wild populations. A putative hybrid taxon, Castanea alabamensis, was identified in northern Alabama in the early 20th century; however, the question of its hybridity has been unresolved. We tested the hypothesized hybrid origin of C. alabamensis using genome-wide sequence-based genotyping of C. alabamensis, all currently recognized North American Castanea taxa, and two Asian Castanea species at > 100,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. With these data, we generated a high-resolution phylogeny, tested for admixture among taxa, and analyzed population genetic structure of the study taxa. Bayesian clustering and principal components analysis provided no evidence of admixture between C. dentata and C. pumila in C. alabamensis genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of genome-wide SNP data indicated that C. alabamensis forms a distinct group within C. pumila sensu lato. Our results are consistent with the model of a nonhybrid origin for C. alabamensis. Our finding of C. alabamensis as a genetically and morphologically distinct group within the North American chinquapin complex provides further impetus for the study and conservation of the North American Castanea species.

Kaelyn H Bumelis ◽  
Michael D Cadman ◽  
Keith A Hobson

Abstract Since the early 1990s, aerial insectivorous birds have shown serious population declines in North America, but it is not clear if factors common to all species within this guild account for these declines. Among sympatric swallows, population trends differ, and this may be due to differences in ecology operating throughout the annual cycle. Although these species all feed on aerial insects, prey taxa can differ tremendously in their “aeroecology” and use by swallows. We examined the potential for dietary differences among three species of swallows, Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), and Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), breeding sympatrically in southern Ontario, Canada. Potential interspecific differences in nestling diet were examined using two endogenous biomarkers, DNA barcoding of nestling feces and stable isotope analysis (δ 2H, δ 13C, δ 15N) of nestling feathers. We found evidence for differences in dietary sources of provisioned young where Barn Swallows provisioned more terrestrial-based prey, Cliff Swallows provisioned an intermediate diet, and Tree Swallows the most aquatic-emergent insect diet. We suggest this information may help to identify potential factors contributing to differential declines of aerial insectivores operating on the breeding grounds, including diet quality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Jessica I. Zugic ◽  
Michael F. J. Pisaric ◽  
Shawn M. McKenzie ◽  
William C. Parker ◽  
Ken A. Elliott ◽  

As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations continue to rise and global temperatures increase, there is growing concern about the sustainability, health, and carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems. Variable retention harvesting (VRH) has been suggested to be a potential method to increase forest biodiversity, growth, and carbon (C) sequestration. A field trial was established in an 88-year-old red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation in southern Ontario, Canada, using a completely randomized design to examine the response of tree productivity and other forest values to five harvesting treatments: 33% aggregate retention (33A), 55% aggregate retention (55A), 33% dispersed retention (33D), and 55% dispersed retention (55D) in comparison to an unharvested control (CN). In this study, we explored the impacts of VRH on aboveground stem radial growth and annual C increment. Standard dendrochronological methods and allometric equations were used to quantify tree- and stand-level treatment effects during a five-year pre-harvest (2009–2013) and post-harvest (2014–2018) period. Tree-level growth and C increment were increased by the dispersed retention pattern regardless of retention level. At the stand level, the total C increment was highest at greater retention levels and did not vary with retention pattern. These results suggest that the choice of retention level and pattern can have a large influence on management objectives as they relate to timber production, climate change adaptation, and/or climate change mitigation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (2) ◽  
pp. 303-314
Kurtis E. Sobkowich ◽  
Olaf Berke ◽  
Theresa Bernardo ◽  
David Pearl ◽  
Paul Kozak

Abstract Host population density as a risk factor for infectious disease transmission is an established concept in both host-parasite ecology and epidemiological disease modeling. A ‘population-at-risk’ value is a necessary denominator in epidemiological analyses to estimate absolute risk. However, local colony density values have been missing from published literature for Ontario, Canada, and crude density measures for the province do not consider the highly heterogeneous concentration of colonies in Southern Ontario. With geostatistical kriging methods, a continuous colony density map was developed from regionally aggregated apiary registration data. This study highlights the potential implications of colony population density on a macro scale and illustrates methodologies available to produce continuous density estimates over a given region with Ontario as an example. The estimation and mapping of continuous colony density values across the population provides future work with a source of data to further investigate potential associations of colony density and disease and helps to inform inspection and surveillance efforts. An interactive regional colony density map was also developed as a knowledge mobilization tool to increase the accessibility of these findings to members of the beekeeping community. The results of this study are an important practical step in advancing epidemiological research on managed honey bees and may lead to further development of strategies to improve the health of honey bees.

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