Red blood cells (RBCs) demonstrate immunomodulatory capabilities through the expression of nucleic acid sensors. Little is known about bat RBCs, and no studies have examined the immune function of bat erythrocytes. Here we show that bat RBCs express the nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 and bind the nucleic acid ligands, single-stranded RNA, and CpG DNA. Collectively, these data suggest that, like human RBCs, bat erythrocytes possess immune function and may be reservoirs for nucleic acids. These findings provide unique insight into bat immunity and may uncover potential mechanisms by which virulent pathogens in humans are concealed in bats.
The dramatically increasing levels of antibiotic resistance are being seen worldwide, and is a significant threat to public health. Antibiotic and drug resistance is seen in various bacterial species. Antibiotic resistance is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and increased treatment costs. Antisense-relevant technologies include the utilization of oligonucleotide molecules to interfere with gene expression, as a new technique for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been proposed antisense agents or nucleic acids analogs with antibacterial properties, which are commonly very short and their size almost 10-20 bases and can be hinted to peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) and locked nucleic acids (LNAs). This review highlights that PNAs, PPMOs, and LNAs target the genes that cause destroy the gene and inhibit the growth of bacteria. These results open a new perspective for therapeutic intervention. In future studies, it is necessary to examine different aspects of antisense agents, for example, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic properties of antisense agents to be employed in clinical treatment.
Nucleic acids underlie the storage and retrieval of genetic information literally in all living organisms, and also provide us excellent materials for making artificial nanostructures and scaffolds for constructing multi-enzyme systems with outstanding performance in catalyzing various cascade reactions, due to their highly diverse and yet controllable structures, which are well determined by their sequences. The introduction of unnatural moieties into nucleic acids dramatically increased the diversity of sequences, structures, and properties of the nucleic acids, which undoubtedly expanded the toolbox for making nanomaterials and scaffolds of multi-enzyme systems. In this article, we first introduce the molecular structures and properties of nucleic acids and their unnatural derivatives. Then we summarized representative artificial nanomaterials made of nucleic acids, as well as their properties, functions, and application. We next review recent progress on constructing multi-enzyme systems with nucleic acid structures as scaffolds for cascade biocatalyst. Finally, we discuss the future direction of applying nucleic acid frameworks in the construction of nanomaterials and multi-enzyme molecular machines, with the potential contribution that unnatural nucleic acids may make to this field highlighted.
Hydrogels are biocompatible matrices for local delivery of nucleic acids; however, functional dopants are required to provide efficient delivery into cells. In particular, dendrimers, known as robust nucleic acid carriers, can be used as dopants. Herein, we report the first example of impregnating neutral hydrogels with siRNA–dendrimer complexes. The surface chemistry of dendrimers allows adjusting the release rate of siRNA-containing complexes. This methodology can bring new materials for biomedical applications.
Nearly all of biology depends on interactions between molecules: proteins with small molecules, proteins with other proteins, nucleic acids with small molecules, and nucleic acids with proteins that regulate gene expression, our concern in this Special Issue. All those kinds of interactions, and others, constitute the vast majority of biology at the molecular level. An understanding of those interactions requires that we quantify them to learn how they interact: How strongly? With which partners? How—and how well—are different partners distinguished? This review addresses the evolution of our current understanding of the molecular origins of affinity and specificity in regulatory protein–DNA interactions, and suggests that both these properties can be modulated by cooperativity.
Psoriasis is a multifactorial, chronic inflammatory skin disease, the development of which is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Cytosolic nucleic acid fragments, recognized as pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns, are highly abundant in psoriatic skin. It is known that psoriatic skin exhibits increased levels of IL-23 compared to healthy skin. However, the relationship between free nucleic acid levels and IL-23 expression has not been clarified yet. To examine a molecular mechanism by which nucleic acids potentially modulate IL-23 levels, an in vitro system was developed to investigate the IL-23 mRNA expression of normal human epidermal keratinocytes under psoriasis-like circumstances. This system was established using synthetic nucleic acid analogues (poly(dA:dT) and poly(I:C)). Signaling pathways, receptor involvement and the effect of PRINS, a long non-coding RNA previously identified and characterized by our research group, were analyzed to better understand the regulation of IL-23 in keratinocytes. Our results indicate that free nucleic acids regulate epithelial IL-23 mRNA expression through the TLR3 receptor and specific signaling pathways, thereby, contributing to the development of an inflammatory milieu favorable for the appearance of psoriatic symptoms. A moderate negative correlation was confirmed between the nucleic-acid-induced IL-23 mRNA level and the rate of its decrease upon PRINS overexpression.