Antimicrobial Resistance
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(FIVE YEARS 10035)



2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (01) ◽  
pp. 6606-2022

This study aimed to isolate aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria from mastitis milk samples, as well as to determine their antibiotic resistance. A total of 196 bovine mastitis milk samples were tested by standard bacteriological methods and with API identification test kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results revealed that the predominant isolate was S. aureus, with an isolation rate of 28%, followed by Streptococcus spp. (27%) and E. coli (19%). Isolation rates for Corynebacterium spp., Mycoplasma spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 11%, 6%, and 4%, respectively. Compared to the bacteria mentioned above, lower percentages were observed for Trueperella pyogenes (2%), Pasteurella multocida (2%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1%). A broad evaluation of antimicrobial resistance showed that the pathogens were resistant to tetracycline (68.63%), oxytetracycline (41.57%), ampicillin (39.08%), ceftiofur (38.1%), cephalexin (32.26%), penicillin (31.25%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (24.53%), enrofloxacin (24.44%), gentamycin (23.68%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (22.09%). This study demonstrated that the sources of bacteria isolated from mastitis bovine milk samples were both contagious and environmental. More importantly, the present results demonstrate a critically high antimicrobial resistance in dairy cattle. For instance, E. coli isolates showed a crucial resistance to commonly used and recommended antimicrobials, including ceftiofur (100%), cephalexin (83.33%), and tetracycline (94.44%). The results of this study may provide valuable information about clinical aspects of bovine mastitis infections and current antimicrobial resistance levels in dairy cattle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. S195
E. Garcia ◽  
M. Muhlebach ◽  
R. Sharma ◽  
A. Khoei ◽  
G. Rao

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 202
Bernard Appiah ◽  
David Anum-Hagin ◽  
Martha Gyansa-Luterrodt ◽  
Elfreda Samman ◽  
Franklin Konadu Addo Agyeman ◽  

Background: Interventions delivered in schools have been found to be effective in improving knowledge of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among school-aged children, particularly those in high-income countries, but the evidence is largely lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to design, implement and assess storytelling in one school and picture drawing in another school as engagement approaches for improving knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about antibiotics and AMR among schoolchildren in Ghana.  Methods: Two schools with a total population of 375 schoolchildren ages 11-15 years in Tema, a city in Ghana, participated in public engagement interventions involving storytelling in one school and picture drawing in another school. The interventions included eight weeks of engagement led by science teachers and a competition held in each school. For quantitative outcome-based evaluation, schoolchildren were randomly sampled in each school (31 in the storytelling school and 32 in the picture-drawing school). Purposive sampling was also used to select 20 schoolchildren in each school for qualitative outcome-based evaluation. Respondents completed identical knowledge, attitudes and beliefs questionnaires and were interviewed at two time points (before and at most a week) after key interventions to assess changes in antibiotics and AMR knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. McNemar test was conducted to assess statistical significance between baseline and endline scores. Framework analysis was used for analysing the qualitative data. Results: Picture drawing had more significant effects (both positive and negative) on schoolchildren’s AMR knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, whereas storytelling had a negative effect on children’s AMR knowledge and no significant impact on beliefs and attitudes.  Conclusions: Our project’s findings suggest that public engagement interventions that use picture drawing and storytelling may influence the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of schoolchildren regarding antibiotic misuse and AMR. However, modifications are required to make them much more effective.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3035
Pongpreecha Malaluang ◽  
Elin Wilén ◽  
Johanna Lindahl ◽  
Ingrid Hansson ◽  
Jane M. Morrell

Bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics following low-level “background” exposure to antimicrobial agents as well as from exposure at therapeutic levels during treatment for bacterial infections. In this review, we look specifically at antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the equine reproductive tract and its possible origin, focusing particularly on antibiotics in semen extenders used in preparing semen doses for artificial insemination. Our review of the literature indicated that AMR in the equine uterus and vagina were reported worldwide in the last 20 years, in locations as diverse as Europe, India, and the United States. Bacteria colonizing the mucosa of the reproductive tract are transferred to semen during collection; further contamination of the semen may occur during processing, despite strict attention to hygiene at critical control points. These bacteria compete with spermatozoa for nutrients in the semen extender, producing metabolic byproducts and toxins that have a detrimental effect on sperm quality. Potential pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may occasionally cause fertility issues in inseminated mares. Antibiotics are added during semen processing, according to legislation, to impede the growth of these microorganisms but may have a detrimental effect on sperm quality, depending on the antimicrobial agent and concentration used. However, this addition of antibiotics is counter to current recommendations on the prudent use of antibiotics, which recommend that antibiotics should be used only for therapeutic purposes and after establishing bacterial sensitivity. There is some evidence of resistance among bacteria found in semen samples. Potential alternatives to the addition of antibiotics are considered, especially physical removal separation of spermatozoa from bacteria. Suggestions for further research with colloid centrifugation are provided.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Siyu Xu ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Jian Gao ◽  
Man Zhou ◽  
Jingyue Yang ◽  

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) is one of the most prevalent pathogens causing bovine mastitis worldwide. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information regarding genetic diversity, complete profiles of virulence factors (VFs), and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes for SDSD associated with bovine mastitis in China. In this study, a total of 674 milk samples, including samples from 509 clinical and 165 subclinical mastitis cases, were collected from 17 herds in 7 provinces in China from November 2016 to June 2019. All SDSD isolates were included in phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). In addition, whole genome sequencing was performed on 12 representative SDSD isolates to screen for VFs and AMR genes and to define pan-, core and accessory genomes. The prevalence of SDSD from mastitis milk samples was 7.57% (51/674). According to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, 51 SDSD isolates were divided into 4 clusters, whereas based on MLST, 51 SDSD isolates were identified as 11 sequence types, including 6 registered STs and 5 novel STs (ST521, ST523, ST526, ST527, ST529) that belonged to 2 distinct clonal complexes (CCs) and 4 singletons. Based on WGS information, 108 VFs genes in 12 isolates were determined in 11 categories. In addition, 23 AMR genes were identified in 11 categories. Pan-, core and accessory genomes were composed of 2,663, 1,633 and 699 genes, respectively. These results provided a comprehensive profiles of SDSD virulence and resistance genes as well as phylogenetic relationships among mastitis associated SDSD in North China.

2021 ◽  
Eleanor MacPherson ◽  
Helen Mangochi ◽  
Rachel Tolhurst ◽  
Victoria Simpson ◽  
Kondwani Kawaza ◽  

Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is responsible for a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries. Outcomes from neonatal sepsis are worsening due to increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Sub-optimal Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) practices of health care workers and caregivers are important drivers of infection transmission.Aim: The Chatinkha Neonatal Unit at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi has experienced multiple outbreaks of neonatal sepsis, associated with drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. We aimed to understand the barriers to implementation of optimal IPC focusing on hand hygiene practice.Materials and Methods: We used a qualitative research methodology to meet the study aim. Combining participant observation (PO) over a seven-month period with semi structured interviews (SSI) to provide an in-depth understanding of activities relating to hygiene and IPC existing on the ward. Results: While most staff and some caregivers, had a good understanding of ideal IPC and understood the importance of good handwashing practices, they faced substantial structural limitations, and scarce resources (both material and human) which made implementation challenging. For staff, the overwhelming numbers of patients meant the workload was often unmanageable and practicing optimal IPC was typically impossible. Caregivers lacked access to basic amenities, including linen and chairs, meaning that it was almost impossible for them to maintain good hand hygiene. Limited access to soap and the erratic water supply for both caregivers and healthcare workers further worsened the situation. Communication challenges between different cadres of staff and with patient caregivers meant that those handling neonates and cleaning the wards were often unaware of outbreaks of drug resistant infection. Conclusion: For IPC to be improved, interventions need to address the chronic shortages of material resources and create an enabling environment for HCWs and patient caregivers.

Stacy Slobodiuk ◽  
Caitlin Niven ◽  
Greer Arthur ◽  
Siddhartha Thakur ◽  
Ayse Ercumen

Population growth and water scarcity necessitate alternative agriculture practices, such as reusing wastewater for irrigation. Domestic wastewater has been used for irrigation for centuries in many historically low-income and arid countries and is becoming more widely used by high-income countries to augment water resources in an increasingly dry climate. Wastewater treatment processes are not fully effective in removing all contaminants, such as antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Literature reviews on the impact of wastewater irrigation on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment have been inconclusive and mostly focused on treated wastewater. We conducted the first systematic review to assess the impact of irrigation with both treated or untreated domestic wastewater on ARB and ARGs in soil and adjacent water bodies. We screened titles/abstracts of 3002 articles, out of which 41 were screened in full text and 26 were included in this review. Of these, thirteen investigated irrigation with untreated wastewater, and nine found a positive association with ARB/ARGs in soil. Out of thirteen studies focused on treated wastewater, six found a positive association with ARB/ARGs while six found mixed/negative associations. Our findings demonstrate that irrigation with untreated wastewater increases AMR in soil and call for precautionary action by field workers, their families, and consumers when untreated wastewater is used to irrigate crops. The effect of irrigation with treated wastewater was more variable among the studies included in our review, highlighting the need to better understand to what extent AMR is disseminated through this practice. Future research should assess factors that modify the effect of wastewater irrigation on AMR in soil, such as the degree and type of wastewater treatment, and the duration and intensity of irrigation, to inform guidelines on the reuse of wastewater for irrigation.

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