Antimicrobial Resistance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (2) ◽  
pp. 268-273
Author(s):  
Si Hyun Kim ◽  
Gyung-Hye Sung ◽  
Eun Hee Park ◽  
In Yeong Hwang ◽  
Gyu Ri Kim ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 808 ◽  
pp. 152144
Author(s):  
Martyna Buta-Hubeny ◽  
Ewa Korzeniewska ◽  
Jakub Hubeny ◽  
Wiktor Zieliński ◽  
Damian Rolbiecki ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Atish Roy Chowdhury ◽  
Debapriya Mukherjee ◽  
Ashish Kumar Singh ◽  
Dipshikha Chakravortty

The invasive non-typhoidal serovar of Salmonella enterica, namely Salmonella Typhimurium ST313, causes bloodstream infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Like other bacterial pathogens, the development of antimicrobial resistance is a severe problem in curing non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. In this work, we have investigated the role of four prominent outer membrane porins of S. Typhimurium, namely OmpA, OmpC, OmpD, and OmpF, in resistance against broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics- ceftazidime and meropenem. We found that deleting OmpA from Salmonella makes the bacteria susceptible to β-lactam drugs. The MIC for both the antibiotics reduced significantly for STM ΔompA compared to the wild-type and the ompA complemented strains. Despite the presence of antibiotics, the uninterrupted growth of STM ΔompC, ΔompD, and ΔompF endorsed the dispensability of these three porins in antimicrobial resistance. The β-lactam antibiotics caused massive depolarization in the outer membrane of the bacteria in the absence of OmpA. We have proved that none of the extracellular loops but the complete structure of perfectly folded OmpA is required by the bacteria for developing antimicrobial resistance. Our data revealed that STM ΔompA consumed more antibiotics than the wild-type and the complemented strain, resulting in severe damage of the bacterial outer membrane and subsequent killing of the pathogen by antibiotic-mediated oxidative stress. Upon deleting ompA, the steady decrease in the relative proportion of antibiotic-resistant persisters and the clearance of the STM ΔompA from the liver and spleen of C57BL/6 mice upon treatment with ceftazidime proved the role of OmpA in rendering protection against β-lactam antibiotics.


Author(s):  
Legese Chelkeba ◽  
Korinan Fanta ◽  
Temesgen Mulugeta ◽  
Tsegaye Melaku

Abstract Background Globally, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) restricted the armamentarium of the health care providers against infectious diseases, mainly due to the emergence of multidrug resistant. This review is aimed at providing contemporary bacterial profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern among pregnant women with significant bacteriuria. Methods Electronic biomedical databases and indexing services such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched. Original records of research articles, available online from 2008 to 2021, addressing the prevalence of significant bacteriuria and AMR pattern among pregnant women and written in English were identified and screened. The relevant data were extracted from included studies using a format prepared in Microsoft Excel and exported to STATA 14.0 software for the outcome measure analyses and subgrouping. Results The data of 5894 urine samples from 20 included studies conducted in 8 regions of the country were pooled. The overall pooled estimate of bacteriuria was 15% (95% CI 13–17%, I2 = 77.94%, p < 0.001) with substantial heterogeneity. The pooled estimate of Escherichia coli recovered from isolates of 896 urine samples was 41% (95% CI 38–45%) followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 22% (95% CI 18–26%), Staphylococcus aureus, 15% (95% CI 12–18%), Staphylococcus saprophytic, 12% (95% CI 6–18%) Proteus mirabilis, 7% (95% CI 4–10%), Enterococcus species, 6% (0–12%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4% (2–6%), Citrobacter species, 4% (95% CI 2–4%), Group B streptococcus, 3% (1–5%), and Enterobacter species, 2% (1–4%). Multidrug resistance proportions of E. coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative staphylococci, 83% (95% CI 76–91%), 78% (95% CI 66–90%), 89% (95% CI 83–96%), and 78% (95% CI 67–88%), respectively. Conclusion The result of current review revealed the occurrence of substantial bacteriuria among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Resistance among common bacteria (E. coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococci species) causing UTIs in pregnant women is widespread to commonly used antibiotics. The high rate of drug resistance in turn warrants the need for regular epidemiological surveillance of antibiotic resistance and implementation of an efficient infection control and stewardship program.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 208
Author(s):  
Andrea Sanchini

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections in humans, such as skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, food poisoning or sepsis. Historically, S. aureus was able to rapidly adapt to anti-staphylococcal antibiotics and become resistant to several classes of antibiotics. Today, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant pathogen and is one of the most common bacteria responsible for hospital-acquired infections and outbreaks, in community settings as well. The rapid and accurate diagnosis of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus is crucial to the early initiation of directed antibiotic therapy and to improve clinical outcomes for patients. In this narrative review, I provide an overview of recent phenotypic and molecular diagnostic methods for antimicrobial resistance detection in S. aureus, with a particular focus on MRSA detection. I consider methods for resistance detection in both clinical samples and isolated S. aureus cultures, along with a brief discussion of the advantages and the challenges of implementing such methods in routine diagnostics.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Belisa Usmael ◽  
Bruk Abraha ◽  
Sisay Alemu ◽  
Bahar Mummed ◽  
Adem Hiko ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Dogs are one of the important asymptomatic carriers of antimicrobial resistant and potentially pathogenic strains of Salmonella. They can harbor large bacterial load in the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes which can be shed in their feces with the possibility of transmission to humans. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella, assessing the risk factors for dog’s Salmonella carriage, and profiling the antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates among housed dogs in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 415 rectal swab samples were collected from randomly selected dogs. Samples were examined for non-typhoidal Salmonella using standard bacteriologic culture and biochemical tests. The disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test) was employed to evaluate the isolates for their susceptibility against five antimicrobials. Results Non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated from 26 (6.3%) of the rectal swab samples, with significantly higher occurrence in diarrheic (15.2%) than non-diarrheic (5.5%) dogs. The risk of Salmonella harboring was significantly higher in female dogs than in male dogs (OR = 2.5, p = 0.027). Dogs fecal shedding of Salmonella was relatively higher in households who used offal as a main feed type for their dogs (23.1%; 95% CI = 5–53.8) than those who used leftover food (10.1%; 95% CI = 5.7–16.1) and practiced mixed feeding system (17%; 95% CI = 7.6–30.8). Salmonella isolates showed higher resistance to ampicillin (41.7%), while all isolates were fully susceptible to gentamicin. Moreover, 58.3% of Salmonella isolates showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Majorities (72.7%) of the dog owners had no awareness on the risk of zoonotic salmonellosis from dog and all of the respondents use bare hand to clean dog kennel. Conclusion Our study reveals the importance of both diarrheic and apparently healthy housed dogs in the harboring and shedding of antimicrobial resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella. The risk of non-typhoidal Salmonella spread among pet owners is not negligible, especially in households who use offal as main feed type. Therefore, an integrated approach such as: proper dog handling practices; continuous evaluation of antimicrobial resistance; and rational use of antimicrobials in the field of veterinary sector are necessary to tackle the problem.


Author(s):  
Tafese Beyene Tufa ◽  
Colin R. Mackenzie ◽  
Hans Martin Orth ◽  
Tobias Wienemann ◽  
Tamara Nordmann ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death in many low-income countries, such as Ethiopia. Without reliable local data concerning causative pathogens and antimicrobial resistance, empiric treatment is suboptimal. The objective of this study was to characterize gram-negative bacteria (GNB) as pathogens and their resistance pattern in hospitalized patients with infections in central Ethiopia. Methods Patients ≥ 1 year of age with fever admitted to the Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from April 2016 to June 2018 were included. Blood and other appropriate clinical specimens were collected and cultured on appropriate media. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the Kirby–Bauer method and VITEK® 2. Species identification and detection of resistance genes were conducted using MALDI-ToF MS (VITEK® MS) and PCR, respectively. Results Among the 684 study participants, 54.2% were male, and the median age was 22.0 (IQR: 14–35) years. Blood cultures were positive in 5.4% (n = 37) of cases. Among other clinical samples, 60.6% (20/33), 20.8% (5/24), and 37.5% (3/8) of swabs/pus, urine and other body fluid cultures, respectively, were positive. Among 66 pathogenic isolates, 57.6% (n = 38) were GNB, 39.4% (n = 26) were gram-positive, and 3.0% (n = 2) were Candida species. Among the isolated GNB, 42.1% (16/38) were Escherichia coli, 23.7% (9/38) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10.5% (4/38) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In total, 27/38 gram-negative isolates were available for further analysis. Resistance rates were as follows: ampicillin/sulbactam, 92.6% (n = 25); cefotaxime, 88.9% (n = 24); ceftazidime, 74.1% (n = 20); cefepime, 74.1% (n = 20); gentamicin, 55.6% (n = 15); piperacillin/tazobactam, 48.1% (n = 13); meropenem, 7.4% (n = 2); and amikacin, 3.7% (n = 1). The blaNDM-1 gene was detected in one K. pneumoniae and one Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, which carried an additional blaOXA-51 gene. The ESBL enzymes were detected in 81.5% (n = 22) of isolates as follows: TEM, 77.2% (n = 17); CTX-M-1 group, 68.2% (n = 15); SHV group, 27.3% (n = 6); and CTX-M-9 group, 9.1% (n = 2). Based on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility results, empiric treatment initiated in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients was likely ineffective. Conclusion We report a high prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria (81.5%) and carbapenem resistance (7.4%), with more than half of GNB carrying two or more ESBL enzymes resulting in suboptimal empiric antibiotic therapy. These findings indicate a need for local and national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and the strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programs.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Author(s):  
James V. Rogers ◽  
Veronica L. Hall ◽  
Charles C. McOsker

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a concerning global threat that, if not addressed, could lead to increases in morbidity and mortality, coupled with societal and financial burdens. The emergence of AMR bacteria can be attributed, in part, to the decreased development of new antibiotics, increased misuse and overuse of existing antibiotics, and inadequate treatment options for biofilms formed during bacterial infections. Biofilms are complex microbiomes enshrouded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that is a primary defense mechanism of the resident microorganisms against antimicrobial agents and the host immune system. In addition to the physical protective EPS barrier, biofilm-resident bacteria exhibit tolerance mechanisms enabling persistence and the establishment of recurrent infections. As current antibiotics and therapeutics are becoming less effective in combating AMR, new innovative technologies are needed to address the growing AMR threat. This perspective article highlights such a product, CMTX-101, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets a universal component of bacterial biofilms, leading to pathogen-agnostic rapid biofilm collapse and engaging three modes of action—the sensitization of bacteria to antibiotics, host immune enablement, and the suppression of site-specific tissue inflammation. CMTX-101 is a new tool used to enhance the effectiveness of existing, relatively inexpensive first-line antibiotics to fight infections while promoting antimicrobial stewardship.


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