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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. Hussain ◽  
X. Li ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
M. Zhou ◽  
S. Ahmad ◽  
...  

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Noor ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
I. Hussain ◽  
...  

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird’s enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
T. Sadaf ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
...  

Abstract During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird’s houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 585-598
Author(s):  
Ana Paula Molinari Candeias ◽  
◽  
Gabrieli Maria Huff ◽  
Adriana Fiorini Rosado ◽  
André Luis Vriesman Beninca ◽  
...  

The objective of this study is to compare the direct fecal smear (DFS) and centrifugal sedimentation (CS) methods in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples of dairy calves. One hundred and fourteen fecal samples were collected from calves aged up to six months from 10 dairy farms located in Palotina and Francisco Alves, Paraná, Brazil. The microscopic analysis revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 51.75% (59/114) of the samples in both methods. In CS, 48.25% (55/114) of the samples were positive, while in DFS slides, only 6.14% (7/114) were positive. Only 4 samples were positive exclusively in DFS. To ensure that there were no false-negative results in the microscopic analysis, the 55 samples that were negative in both DFS and CS were selected for molecular analysis using the nested PCR (nPCR). Of these 55 samples, 24% (13/55) were positive and forwarded for sequencing part of the genome, which made it possible to identify C. parvum, C. bovis and C. ryanae. Besides the characterization of the Cryptosporidium species, it was possible to identify bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter interfering directly in the analyzed samples. The microscopic analysis also revealed higher sensitivity when CS was used to make the fecal smears. However, some samples that were negative in this technique had positive PCR results. Thus, molecular analysis is indicated to confirm cases of Cryptosporidium spp. Further studies are necessary to prove the specificities of the used primers since the results obtained in nPCR were positive for the protozoan but, when genetic sequencing was performed, Acinetobacter spp. was identified.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262108
Author(s):  
Mohammad El Mouzan ◽  
Asaad Assiri ◽  
Ahmed Al Sarkhy ◽  
Mona Alasmi ◽  
Anjum Saeed ◽  
...  

Viruses are common components of the intestinal microbiome, modulating host bacterial metabolism and interacting with the immune system, with a possible role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases such as celiac disease (CeD). The objective of this study was to characterize the virome profile in children with new-onset CeD. We used metagenomic analysis of viral DNA in mucosal and fecal samples from children with CeD and controls and performed sequencing using the Nextera XT library preparation kit. Abundance log2 fold changes were calculated using differential expression and linear discriminant effect size. Shannon alpha and Bray–Curtis beta diversity were determined. A total of 40 children with CeD and 39 controls were included. We found viral dysbiosis in both fecal and mucosal samples. Examples of significantly more abundant species in fecal samples of children with CeD included Human polyomavirus 2, Enterobacteria phage mEpX1, and Enterobacteria phage mEpX2; whereas less abundant species included Lactococcus phages ul36 and Streptococcus phage Abc2. In mucosal samples however, no species were significantly associated with CeD. Shannon alpha diversity was not significantly different between CeD and non-CeD groups and Bray–Curtis beta diversity showed no significant separation between CeD and non-CeD samples in either mucosal or stool samples, whereas separation was clear in all samples. We identified significant viral dysbiosis in children with CeD, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of CeD indicating the need for further studies.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Author(s):  
Sarah A. Murray ◽  
Ashlyn C. Holbert ◽  
Keri N. Norman ◽  
Sara D. Lawhon ◽  
Jason E. Sawyer ◽  
...  

In two sequential replicates (n = 90 and n = 96 feedlot finisher cattle, respectively) we measured the impact of an Enterococcus faecium-based probiotic (DFM) and an altered feedlot pen environment on antimicrobial resistance among fecal enterococci in cattle fed (or, not fed) the macrolide tylosin. Diluted fecal samples were spiral-plated on plain and antibiotic-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. In the first replicate, tylosin significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative quantity of erythromycin-resistant enterococci. This effect was diminished in cattle fed the DFM in conjunction with tylosin, indicating a macrolide susceptible probiotic may help mitigate resistance. A similar observed effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in the second replicate. Isolates were speciated and resistance phenotypes were obtained for E. faecium and E. hirae. Susceptible strains of bacteria fed as DFM may prove useful for mitigating the selective effects of antibiotic use; however, the longer-term sustainability of such an approach remains unclear.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262095
Author(s):  
Lena M. Biehl ◽  
Fedja Farowski ◽  
Catharina Hilpert ◽  
Angela Nowag ◽  
Anne Kretzschmar ◽  
...  

Background The understanding of longitudinal changes in the urinary microbiota of healthy women and its relation to intestinal microbiota is limited. Methods From a cohort of 15 premenopausal women without known urogenital disease or current symptoms, we collected catheter urine (CU), vaginal and periurethral swabs, and fecal samples on four visits over six months. Additionally, ten participants provided CU and midstream urine (MU) to assess comparability. Urine was subjected to expanded culture. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on all urine, fecal, and selected vaginal and periurethral samples. Sequence reads were processed (DADA2 pipeline) and analyzed using QIIME 2 and R. Results Relative abundances of urinary microbiota were variable over 6–18 months. The degree of intraindividual variability of urinary microbiota was higher than that found in fecal samples. Still, nearly half of the observed beta diversity of all urine samples could be attributed to differences between volunteers (R2 = 0.48, p = 0.001). After stratification by volunteer, time since last sexual intercourse was shown to be a factor significantly contributing to beta diversity (R2 = 0.14, p = 0.001). We observed a close relatedness of urogenital microbial habitats and a clear distinction from intestinal microbiota in the overall betadiversity analysis. Microbiota compositions derived from MU differed only slightly from CU compositions. Within this analysis of low-biomass samples, we identified contaminating sequences potentially stemming from sequencing reagents. Conclusions Results from our longitudinal cohort study confirmed the presence of a rather variable individual urinary microbiota in premenopausal women. These findings from catheter urine complement previous observations on temporal dynamics in voided urine. The higher intraindividual variability of urinary microbiota as compared to fecal microbiota will be a challenge for future studies investigating associations with urogenital diseases and aiming at identifying pathogenic microbiota signatures.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bálint József Nagy ◽  
Bence Balázs ◽  
Isma Benmazouz ◽  
Péter Gyüre ◽  
László Kövér ◽  
...  

During winter, a large number of rooks gather and defecate at the park of a university clinic. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli in these birds and compared recovered isolates with contemporary human isolates. In 2016, fecal samples were collected from 112 trap-captured rooks and investigated for presence of ESBL producers using eosin methylene blue agar supplemented by 2 mg/L cefotaxime; 2,455 contemporary human fecal samples of patients of the clinics sent for routine culturing were tested similarly. In addition, 42 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates collected during the same period from inpatients were also studied. ESBL genes were sought for by PCR and were characterized by sequencing; E. coli ST131 clones were identified. Epidemiological relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and confirmed using whole genome sequencing in selected cases. Thirty-seven (33%) of sampled rooks and 42 (1.7%) of human stools yielded ESBL-producing E coli. Dominant genes were blaCTX–M–55 and blaCTX–M–27 in corvid, blaCTX–M–15 and blaCTX–M–27 in human isolates. ST162 was common among rooks. Two rook-derived E. coli belonged to ST131 C1-M27, which was also predominant (10/42) among human fecal and (15/42) human clinical isolates. Another potential link between rooks and humans was a single ST744 rook isolate grouped with one human fecal and three clinical isolates. Despite possible contact, genotypes shared between rooks and humans were rare. Thus, rooks are important as long-distance vectors and reservoirs of ESBL-producing E. coli rather than direct sources of infections to humans in our setting.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gabriel Trueba ◽  
Diana Calderon ◽  
Paul A Cardenas ◽  
Maria Belen Prado ◽  
Jay Graham

The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a complex and diverse ecosystem. Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently studied and characterized species in the gut ecosystem, nevertheless, there has been little research to determine their diversity and population dynamics in the intestines of children over time. In this prospective study, a fresh fecal sample was obtained from children longitudinally over one year (30 fecal samples at sampling period 1 and 22 fecal samples at sampling periods 2 and 3). From each stool sample, five E. coli colonies were randomly selected (n = 405 E. coli isolates total) in order to characterize the genotype and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns. We found that all numerically dominant E. coli lineages in children's intestines were transient colonizers, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of these strains varied significantly over time without any apparent selective force. Whole-genome sequencing of 3 isolates belonging to ST131 found in one child during the sampling period I and II indicated that isolates were three different ST 131 clones that carried extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jia Li ◽  
Richard William McLaughlin ◽  
Yingli Liu ◽  
Junying Zhou ◽  
Xueying Hu ◽  
...  

Abstract The aim of this study was to culture pathogenic bacteria from the blowhole, lung, stomach and fecal samples of a neonatal crucially endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) that died 27 days after birth. Bacteria were inoculated and representative isolates were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A total of three Clostridium perfringens type C strains from the fecal samples were isolated. Toxin genes, including cpa, cpb and cpb2, were detected by PCR amplification, while the etx, iap and cpe genes were absent. Biofilm formation of the three strains was examined. Only one strain was able to form a biofilm. In addition, isolates showed strong resistance against the antibiotics amikacin (3/3), erythromycin (1/3), gentamicin (3/3), streptomycin (3/3), and trimethoprim (3/3), while sensitivity to ampicillin (3/3), bacitracin (3/3), erythromycin (2/3), penicillin G (3/3), and tetracycline (3/3). The results suggested C. perfringens type C could have contributed to the death of this neonatal porpoise.


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