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2022 ◽  
Vol 193 ◽  
pp. 106683
Chenjiao Tan ◽  
Changying Li ◽  
Dongjian He ◽  
Huaibo Song

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 58-69
Artit Laoruengthana ◽  
Piti Rattanaprichavej ◽  
Parin Samapath ◽  
Bhuwad Chinwatanawongwan ◽  
Pariphat Chompoonutprapa ◽  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 229
Sabin Pathak ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  
Eshetu Janka

Removing ammonium via the partial nitritation anammox (PNA) process has been widely applied because of its cost and energy effectiveness. However, the first stage of PNA, partial nitritation, is hard to implement practically due to the challenging suppression of nitrate oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and should be achieved in the anammox environment to extend it to one stage PNA. Hence, this article evaluates different techniques, such as the combination of low dissolve oxygen (DO) and high free ammonia (FA), and the intermittent aeration cycle to achieve partial nitritation in an anammox start-up environment. For this purpose, a 10.5 L lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor was set up and fed with synthetic wastewater and the transformation of influent ammonium into nitrate and nitrite was measured. The results showed that, despite applying low DO and higher free ammonia than the inhibition range of NOB, the nitrate production rate (NPR) was consistently higher than the nitrite accumulation rate (NAR), signifying no sufficient NOB suppression, partial nitritation under continuous aeration and up to a 0.27 gN/m2.d surface ammonium loading rate (SALR). Higher SALR than 0.27 gN/m2.d could result in partial nitritation since nitrogen compounds transformation was closer to partial nitritation when the reactor was subjected to 0.27 gN/m2.d rather than 0.14 gN/m2.d. Lifting up the SALR, on the other hand, results in a bad anammox environment and cannot prolong it to one-stage PNA. An intermittent aeration cycle with four different cycle lengths sets, obtained by monitoring nitrogen compound transformation, was, therefore, applied to the reactor. The relatively shorter aerobic length of 10 min ON and 30 OFF intermittent aeration cycle with 0.5 mg/L aerated DO was successful in achieving the partial nitritation with NPR, NAR, and ammonium removal efficiency (ARE) values of 17%, 78%, and 37%, respectively, showing that shorter aerated length suppresses NOB to a high degree due to less available time for NOB after oxygen starvation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Septiani Hidianingsih ◽  
Yonas Immanuel Hutasoit

Objective: This study compared several factors that are thought to contribute to the incidence of complications of urethroplasty fistula after urethroplasty, including meatus location, degree of chordee, surgical technique, and postoperative stent type. Material & Methods: This study is an analytical study with retrospective cohort design. After adjusting to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 89 subjects with proximal hypospadias were subjected to urethroplasty at Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta from 2016 to 2019. An analysis of the relationship between several variables and the incidence of uretrocutaneous fistula was analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference between the one-stage and two-stage urethroplasty technique on the incidence of urethrocutaneous fistula (p = 0.063). There was no significant difference between the degree of chordee and complications of urethrocutaneous fistula after urethroplasty (p = 0.677). The relationship between the use of silastic stent, catheter, or cystostomy type was also not significant in complications of urethrocutaneous fistula (p = 0.576). The location of the urethral meatus also did not have a significant role in predicting the incidence of post-urethroplasty urethrocutaneous fistula (p = 0.169). Conclusion: Surgical technique (one stage and two stages), type of stent, degree of chordee, and location of the urethral meatus, did not have a significant correlation with the incidence of urethrocutaneous fistula in hypospadias patients after urethroplasty.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yi Zhan ◽  
Xin Kang ◽  
Wenjie Gao ◽  
Xinliang Zhang ◽  
Lingbo Kong ◽  

AbstractIn recent years, with the in-depth research on spinal tuberculosis, posterior surgery alone has been praised highly by more and more surgeons due to the better correction of kyphosis, better maintenance of spinal physiological curvature, smaller surgical trauma and fewer surgical complications. However, there is currently lack of relevant reports about the efficacy of posterior surgery alone in the treatment of tuberculosis in the T4–6 segments. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical study efficacy and feasibility of one-stage posterior-only surgical treatment for thoracic spinal tuberculosis in the T4–6 segments. 67 patients with tuberculosis in T4–6 segments who underwent one-stage posterior-only surgery were included in this study. The clinical efficacy was evaluated using statistical analysis based on the data about erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Oswestry Dability Index (ODI) score, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and Cobb angle before surgery, after surgery and at the last follow-up. All patients completed fusion during the follow-up period of 6–9 months. ESR and CRP were returned to normal for all patients at 6 months follow-up. In the meanwhile, among the 27 patients combined with neurological impairment, neurological functions of 22 cases (81.48%) recovered completely at the last follow-up (P < 0.05). Cobb angle of the kyphosis was improved from preoperative 34.8 ± 10.9° to postoperative 9.6 ± 2.8°, maintaining at 11.3 ± 3.2° at the last follow-up, The ODI and VAS scores were improved by 77.10% and 81.70%, respectively. This 5-year follow-up study shows that better clinical efficacy can be achieved for tuberculosis in T4–6 segments using one-stage posterior-only approach by costotransverse debridement in combination with bone graft and internal fixation. The posterior surgical method cannot only effectively accomplish debridement, obtain satisfactory clinical results, but also well correct kyphotic deformity and maintain it.

2022 ◽  
A.V. Vyboishchik

Abstract. The article describes the features of ultramarine, its modifications, viz. ultramarine blue. The requirements for ultramarine blue grades are observed, the one-stage and two-stage technologies for the production of ultramarine blue are described, the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are listed, new recommendations for the production of ultramarine blue are offered.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 365
Anna Švančárková ◽  
Dagmar Galusková ◽  
Aleksandra Ewa Nowicka ◽  
Helena Pálková ◽  
Dušan Galusek

The influence of 4% acetic acid (pH~2.4) and an alkaline solution of NaOH (pH~10) on the corrosion resistance and micromechanical properties of disilicate crystals containing glass-ceramics (LS2-GC’s) is studied. Partially crystallized lithium metasilicate crystal containing glass-ceramics (LS-GC’s) are annealed to fully LS2-GC’s using a one stage and a two-stage heating to induce nucleation. Materials with various chemical and wear resistance are prepared. The content of the crystalline phase in the material annealed in the two-stage process A is 60.0% and increases to 72.2% for the material heated in the one-stage process B. The main elements leached in the acidic medium are lithium and phosphorus, while lithium, silicon, and phosphorus leached into the alkaline environment. Material B exhibits better chemical resistance to the corrosive influence of 4% acetic acid under quasi-dynamic conditions. In the alkaline corrosion medium, silicon is leached from material A faster compared to the material B. After prolonged exposure to acidic or basic environments, both materials show evidence of surface structural changes. A decrease of the sliding wear resistance is observed after corrosion in the acidic environment under dynamic conditions. In both materials, the wear rate increases after corrosion.

Mustafa Akkaya ◽  
Georges Vles ◽  
Iman Godarzi Bakhtiari ◽  
Amir Sandiford ◽  
Jochen Salber ◽  

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