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Sergei Ovcharenko ◽  
Mikhail Gaponov ◽  
Aleksey A Klimov ◽  
Nicolas Tiercelin ◽  
Philippe Pernod ◽  

Abstract We study experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of spin relaxation motion excited by a femtosecond pulse in the TbCo2/FeCo multilayer structures with different ratios of TbCo2 to FeCo thicknesses rd = dTbCo2 / dFeCo. The main attribute of the structure is in-plane magnetic anisotropy artificially induced during sputtering under DC magnetic field. The optical pump-probe method revealed strongly damped high-frequency oscillations of the dynamical Kerr rotation angle, followed by its slow relaxation to the initial state. Modeling experimental results using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation showed that the observed entire dynamics is due to destruction and restoration of magnetic anisotropy rather than to demagnetization. For the pumping fluence of 7 mJ/cm2, the maximal photo-induced disruption of the anisotropy field is about 14% for the sample with rd = 1 and decreases when rd increases. The anisotropy relaxation is a three-stage process: the ultrafast one occurs within several picoseconds, and the slow one occurs on a nanosecond time scale. The Gilbert damping in the multilayers is found one order of magnitude higher than that in the constituent monolayers.

Andrea Sottini ◽  
Giacomo Ciambotti ◽  
David Littlewood

This article examines how small social enterprises (SSEs) in East Africa build business models for base of the pyramid (BoP) markets, through engaging symbiotic ecosystems. Through in-depth qualitative research, a three-stage process is identified. First, SSEs learn and become sensitised to the manifold challenges of building business models for BoP markets. Second, SSEs identify and connect with key BoP actors, weaving them together to create a symbiotic ecosystem and to overcome the aforementioned challenges. Third, SSEs harness this symbiotic ecosystem to deliver community-centred business models for the BoP. This research contributes to social entrepreneurship, small business, and BoP literatures, by shedding light on the challenges faced by SSEs working in the BoP, and through novel elaboration of how SSEs develop and interact with symbiotic ecosystems to surmount these challenges. It also provides important practical insights, for social entrepreneurs and social enterprise managers in Africa and elsewhere.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 365
Anna Švančárková ◽  
Dagmar Galusková ◽  
Aleksandra Ewa Nowicka ◽  
Helena Pálková ◽  
Dušan Galusek

The influence of 4% acetic acid (pH~2.4) and an alkaline solution of NaOH (pH~10) on the corrosion resistance and micromechanical properties of disilicate crystals containing glass-ceramics (LS2-GC’s) is studied. Partially crystallized lithium metasilicate crystal containing glass-ceramics (LS-GC’s) are annealed to fully LS2-GC’s using a one stage and a two-stage heating to induce nucleation. Materials with various chemical and wear resistance are prepared. The content of the crystalline phase in the material annealed in the two-stage process A is 60.0% and increases to 72.2% for the material heated in the one-stage process B. The main elements leached in the acidic medium are lithium and phosphorus, while lithium, silicon, and phosphorus leached into the alkaline environment. Material B exhibits better chemical resistance to the corrosive influence of 4% acetic acid under quasi-dynamic conditions. In the alkaline corrosion medium, silicon is leached from material A faster compared to the material B. After prolonged exposure to acidic or basic environments, both materials show evidence of surface structural changes. A decrease of the sliding wear resistance is observed after corrosion in the acidic environment under dynamic conditions. In both materials, the wear rate increases after corrosion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Emily R. Ramage ◽  
Meredith Burke ◽  
Margaret Galloway ◽  
Ian D. Graham ◽  
Heidi Janssen ◽  

Abstract Background Careful development of interventions using principles of co-production is now recognized as an important step for clinical trial development, but practical guidance on how to do this in practice is lacking. This paper aims (1) provide practical guidance for researchers to co-produce interventions ready for clinical trial by describing the 4-stage process we followed, the challenges experienced and practical tips for researchers wanting to co-produce an intervention for a clinical trial; (2) describe, as an exemplar, the development of our intervention package. Method We used an Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) approach to co-produce a telehealth-delivered exercise program for people with stroke. The 4-stage process comprised of (1) a start-up planning phase with the co-production team. (2) Content development with knowledge user informants. (3) Design of an intervention protocol. (4) Protocol refinement. Results and reflections The four stages of intervention development involved an 11-member co-production team and 32 knowledge user informants. Challenges faced included balancing conflicting demands of different knowledge user informant groups, achieving shared power and collaborative decision making, and optimising knowledge user input. Components incorporated into the telehealth-delivered exercise program through working with knowledge user informants included: increased training for intervention therapists; increased options to tailor the intervention to participant’s needs and preferences; and re-naming of the program. Key practical tips include ways to minimise the power differential between researchers and consumers, and ensure adequate preparation of the co-production team. Conclusion Careful planning and a structured process can facilitate co-production of complex interventions ready for clinical trial. Graphical Abstract

Amol Pophali ◽  
Rakshit Kajala ◽  
Haider Ali ◽  
Nishith Verma ◽  
K. D. P. Nigam

NNi nanoparticles-dispersed activated carbon fibers (Ni/ACFs) were synthesized for the first time via a continuous flow single-stage process using coiled flow inverter (CFI) at ~30 oC. The process involved impregnation...

Junjiao Zhang ◽  
Hanqin Qiu

AbstractThis study aims to explore the composition of virtual guided tour experience on Airbnb and to develop a formation process of virtual guided tour experience. A case study based on the qualitative analysis was conducted with a dataset of online reviews towards an Online Experience in Beijing, China. A three-stage process of virtual guided tour experience was concluded, including experience encounter, experience evaluation, and behavioral intention. Experience encounter describes the experience composition from four dimensions: interpretation quality, host credibility, tourist-host social contact, and peer interaction; Experience evaluation is involved with benefits mainly gained from the enhanced understanding of local culture and the satisfaction attributed by the sense of telepresence; Further, behavioral intention covers both online and offline willingness to recommend or repurchase the virtual tour, or visit the destination in person after the pandemic. Theoretical and practical implications in navigating tourism recovery were discussed.

Li-Qiu Zhang ◽  
Xing Jiang ◽  
Hongwei Rong ◽  
Chun-Hai Wei ◽  
Min Luo ◽  

As one stage process capable of simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal, membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) has advantages of low energy consumption from bubble-free aeration and no extra carbon dosage...

2021 ◽  
Nishali Kirit Patel ◽  
Elinor Wahal ◽  
Adriana Mancilla Galindo ◽  
Alejandra Rodarte ◽  
Tim Jesudason ◽  

BACKGROUND The emergence of digital technologies over the past decade has presented a novel opportunity to address healthcare challenges associated with COVID-19 and accelerate progress towards achieving the health-related goals under the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have played a vital role in scaling up digital health solutions and disseminating curated scientific information in the face of the infodemic. However, several challenges remain around the effectiveness of PPP-related digital solutions and antagonistic viewpoints of engaging the private sector. We sought to evaluate the role of public-private partnerships in the digital public health space during COVID-19 and identify key lessons learned and challenges in the uptake of digital health solutions globally. OBJECTIVE Electronic and grey literature search results from PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar were screened by one reviewer through a two-stage process. We included all relevant systematic reviews, interventional, observational, and descriptive studies published in English published from January 2020 to June 2021. Two case study analyses on digital health chatbots, informed by expert opinion, were also performed to assess for the role of public-private partnerships in advancing digital public health solutions. METHODS Electronic and grey literature search results from PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar were screened by one reviewer through a two-stage process. We included all relevant systematic reviews, interventional, observational, and descriptive studies published in English published from January 2020 to June 2021. Two case study analyses on digital health chatbots, informed by expert opinion, were also performed to assess for the role of public-private partnerships in advancing digital public health solutions. RESULTS Forty-five articles met the inclusion criteria for qualitative analysis, the majority of which were secondary research. Results of the publications can be broadly categorized into three groups: (1) models and definitions of public-private partnerships used in the healthcare space; (2) purposes of and motivations of public-private partnerships in global public health; and (3) and facilitators, barriers, and challenges to date. CONCLUSIONS The literature review as well as the case studies analysis reveal that PPPs can represent a valid option for tackling global healthcare issues with a digital health approach. Further research is needed to complement the initial findings of the present paper, as well as to assess a wider pool of case studies and the different features that they might present.

V. L. Poliakov

A mathematical problem of the action of a representative biofilm in the absence of oxygen is formulated. The anaerobic process of decomposition of a dissolved organic matter is considered as a two-stage process, proceeding due to the vital activity of two groups of microorganisms. An approximate analytic solution allowing one to calculate the concentration and consumption of primary and secondary organic substrates with minimal errors has been obtained. On test examples, their rates of transfer through the biofilm surface are determined, and the possibility of the movement of volatile fatty acids in both directions is discussed.

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