independent risk factor
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Muzaffar ◽  
M. A. Khan ◽  
M. H. Mushtaq ◽  
M. Nasir ◽  
A. Khan ◽  

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Beilei Wang ◽  
Jinsheng Hua ◽  
Likun Ma

Objectives: We assessed the TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor for the presence of coronary artery calcifications (CACs). Methods: We collected demographic characteristics (age and gender), physical examination (height, weight, BMI, SBP, DBP), comorbidities, medication use, and laboratory variables Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein (TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, UA, TBG, 25-OH-VitD3); and we used coronary angiography to determine the presence of CACs. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the correlation between the TG/HDL-C ratio and CACs and established a predictive model. Results: CAC was present in 121 patients (25.80%). The levels of TG and TG/HDL-C ratio in the CAC group were higher than those in the non-CAC group, while the level of HDL-C in the CAC group was lower than that in the non-CAC group. The univariate analysis showed that the TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with CAC (OR, 0.021; 95% CI, 0.008 to 0.052; P<0.001), and the multivariate analysis indicated that the ratio was an independent risk factor for CAC (OR, 4.088; 95% CI, 2.787-5.996; P<0.001). Using the ratio to establish a prediction model, the area under the ROC curve was 0.814 (95% CI, 0.775-0.853; P<0.001), suggesting that the TG/HDL-C ratio has a high diagnostic efficiency. The diagnostic threshold was 1.037, and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 89.3% and 60.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein TG/HDL-C ratio is an independent risk factor for CAC with good diagnostic efficacy. Abbreviations: TG: Triglycerides, HDL-C: High-Density Lipoprotein, CAC: Coronary Artery Calcifications, BMI: Body Mass Index, SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP: Diastolic Blood Pressure, UA: Uric Acid, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, 25-OH-VitD3: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, ACEI: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ARB: Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, CCB: Calcium Channel Blockers, ARNI: Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor, CAG: Coronary Angiography, AUCROC: Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve. doi: How to cite this:Wang B, Hua J, Ma L. Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Ratio can predict coronary artery calcification. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-25
Marta Novella-Navarro ◽  
José Luis Cabrera-Alarcón ◽  
José Luis Rosales-Alexander ◽  
Jorge Juan González-Martín ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaoyan Fan ◽  
Junye Wen ◽  
Lei Bao ◽  
Fei Gao ◽  
You Li ◽  

Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) is one of the most lethal tumors worldwide, and while its detailed mechanism of occurrence remains unclear, an early diagnosis of LIHC could significantly improve the 5-years survival of LIHC patients. It is therefore imperative to explore novel molecular markers for the early diagnosis and to develop efficient therapies for LIHC patients. Currently, DEPDC1B has been reported to participate in the regulation of cell mitosis, transcription, and tumorigenesis. To explore the valuable diagnostic and prognostic markers for LIHC and further elucidate the mechanisms underlying DEPDC1B-related LIHC, numerous databases, such as Oncomine, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, Kaplan-Meier plotter, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were employed to determine the association between the expression of DEPDC1B and prognosis in LIHC patients. Generally, the DEPDC1B mRNA level was highly expressed in LIHC tissues, compared with that in normal tissues (p &lt; 0.01). High DEPDC1B expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) in LIHC patients, especially in stage II, IV, and grade I, II, III patients (all p &lt; 0.05). The univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that DEPDC1B was an independent risk factor for OS among LIHC patients (HR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.08–1.6, p = 0.007). In addition, the protein expression of DEPDC1B was validated using Human Protein Atlas database. Furthermore, the expression of DEPDC1B was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay using five pairs of matched LIHC tissues and their adjacent noncancerous tissues. The KEGG pathway analysis indicated that high expression of DEPDC1B may be associated with several signaling pathways, such as MAPK signaling, the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, p53 signaling, and the Wnt signaling pathways. Furthermore, high DEPDC1B expression may be significantly associated with various cancers. Conclusively, DEPDC1B may be an independent risk factor for OS among LIHC cancer patients and may be used as an early diagnostic marker in patients with LIHC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 394
Maria Paola Lauretta ◽  
Rita Maria Melotti ◽  
Corinne Sangermano ◽  
Anneliya Maria George ◽  
Rafael Badenes ◽  

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is considered as an independent risk factor for several diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurological and autoimmune conditions. Atherothrombotic events, as a result of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation, are the main mechanisms involved in vascular damage. This review article reports clinical evidence on the relationship between the concentration of plasmatic homocysteine (Hcy) and acute brain injury (ABI) in neurocritical care patients. Materials and methods: a systematic search of articles in the PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted, of which only complete studies, published in English in peer-reviewed journals, were included. Results: A total of 33 articles, which can be divided into the following 3 subchapters, are present: homocysteine and acute ischemic stroke (AIS); homocysteine and traumatic brain injury (TBI); homocysteine and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)/subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This confirms that HHcy is an independent risk factor for ABI and a marker of poor prognosis in the case of stroke, ICH, SAH and TBI. Conclusions: Several studies elucidate that Hcy levels influence the patient’s prognosis in ABI and, in some cases, the risk of recurrence. Hcy appears as biochemical marker that can be used by neuro-intensivists as an indicator for risk stratification. Moreover, a nutraceutical approach, including folic acid, the vitamins B6 and B12, reduces the risk of thrombosis, cardiovascular and neurological dysfunction in patients with severe HHcy that were admitted for neurocritical care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maolin Yao ◽  
Lanyi Fu ◽  
Xuedong Liu ◽  
Dong Zheng

Aberrant activation of calmodulin 1 (CALM1) has been reported in human cancers. However, comprehensive understanding of the role of CALM1 in most cancer types has remained unclear. We systematically analyzed the expression landscape, DNA methylation, gene alteration, immune infiltration, clinical relevance, and molecular pathway of CALM1 in multiple cancers using various online tools, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, cBioPortal and the Human Protein Atlas databases. Kaplan–Meier and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to explore the prognostic and diagnostic potential of CALM1 expression. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate whether the CALM1 expression could be an independent risk factor. A nomogram predicting the overall survival (OS) of patients was developed, evaluated, and compared with the traditional Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) model using decision curve analysis. R language was employed as the main tool for analysis and visualization. Results revealed CALM1 to be highly expressed in most cancers, its expression being regulated by DNA methylation in multiple cancers. CALM1 had a low mutation frequency (within 3%) and was associated with immune infiltration. We observed a substantial positive correlation between CALM1 expression and macrophage and neutrophil infiltration levels in multiple cancers. Different mutational forms of CALM1 hampered immune cell infiltration. Additionally, CALM1 expression had high diagnostic and prognostic potential. Multivariate analyses revealed CALM1 expression to be an independent risk factor for OS. Therefore, our newly developed nomogram had a higher clinical value than the TNM model. The concordance index, calibration curve, and time-dependent ROC curves of the nomogram exhibited excellent performance in terms of predicting the survival rate of patients. Moreover, elevated CALM1 expression contributes to the activation of cancer-related pathways, such as the WNT and MAPK pathways. Overall, our findings improved our understanding of the function of CALM1 in human cancers.

2022 ◽  
Serap Şimşek-Yavuz ◽  
Gülşah Tunçer ◽  
Özlem Altuntaş Aydın ◽  
Mehtap Aydın ◽  
Filiz Pehlivanoğlu ◽  

Abstract PurposeCOVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be highly effective; however, vaccine breakthrough infections resulting from hospitalization may still occur in a small percentage of vaccinated individuals. We investigated whether the clinical and microbiological features and outcomes were different between hospitalized COVID-19 vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients.MethodsThis multicentre, prospective, cross-sectional study was performed between April and June 2021. All hospitalized COVID-19 patients who previously had at least one dose of Coronavac were included in the study, along with some unvaccinated patients. All epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded and compared between the vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.ResultsThere were 69 fully Coronavac vaccinated and 175 unvaccinated patients. All breakthrough infections occurred in the first 3 months of vaccination. Fully vaccinated patients were older and had more comorbidities than unvaccinated patients (p<0.05). There were minor differences between the groups in the symptoms, physical and laboratory findings, anti-spike IgG positivity rate, mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody level, and severity of COVID-19. The mortality rate of fully vaccinated patients was higher than the mortality rate in unvaccinated patients; however, vaccination was not an independent risk factor for mortality.ConclusionsHospitalized patients with breakthrough COVID-19 after Coronavac vaccination were usually older with comorbidities. The severity and clinical outcomes of these cases were similar to those of unvaccinated patients. Our findings suggest that the immune response elicited by Coronovac could be insufficient to prevent COVID-19-related severe disease and death within 3 months of vaccination among elderly people with comorbidities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yinjie Guo ◽  
Canxia Xu ◽  
Linfang Zhang ◽  
Zhiheng Chen ◽  
Xiujuan Xia

Background: Studies show inconsistent results regarding the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and stroke. The present study assessed a potential association between H. pylori infection and an important risk factor for stroke, intracranial atherosclerosis.Methods: In total, 15,798 subjects with transcranial Doppler (TCD) and 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) were enrolled from March 2012 to March 2017. Intracranial atherosclerosis was further measured using intracranial carotid artery calcification (ICAC) on past or recent head CT, and 14,084 subjects were ultimately included in the study. Baseline demographics, atherosclerosis risk factors, and laboratory results were investigated. Since endothelial dysfunction is critical to the development of atherosclerosis, the role of H. pylori in migration, tube formation, and proliferation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was assessed in vitro.Results: The intracranial atherosclerosis group had a higher proportion of women and a greater rate of H. pylori infection than those without intracranial atherosclerosis. H. pylori infection was significantly more common in women with intracranial atherosclerosis than males. In addition, the incidence of intracranial atherosclerosis was significantly higher in women with H. pylori infection than uninfected women (53.8 vs. 46.4%, p &lt; 0.001). In an adjusted model, H. pylori was shown to be an independent risk factor for intracranial atherosclerosis in women ≤ 60 years of age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.261, 95% CI = 1.839–2.780, p &lt; 0.001]. Serum exosomes from patients with H. pylori infection had significantly reduced brain endothelial cell migration, tube formation, and proliferation in vitro.Conclusion:Helicobacter pylori infection may be an important independent risk factor for intracranial atherosclerosis in women ≤ 60 years of age.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 294-307
Xiaoli Wu ◽  
Hanyang Xing ◽  
Ping Chen ◽  
Jihua Ma ◽  
Xintian Wang ◽  

Cough is a common complication after pulmonary resection. However, the factors associated with cough that develop after pulmonary resection are still controversial. In this study, we used the Simplified Cough Score (SCS) and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) score to investigate potential risk factors for postoperative cough. Between January 2017 and June 2021, we collected the clinical data of 517 patients, the SCS at three days after surgery and the LCQ at two weeks and six weeks after surgery. Then, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors for postoperative cough. The clinical baseline data of the cough group and the non-cough group were similar. However, the cough group had longer operation time and more blood loss. The patients who underwent lobectomy were more likely to develop postoperative cough than the patients who underwent segmentectomy and wedge resection, while the patients who underwent systematic lymph node dissection were more likely to develop postoperative cough than the patients who underwent lymph node sampling and those who did not undergo lymph node resection. When the same lymph node management method was applied, there was no difference in the LCQ scores between the patients who underwent wedge resection, lobectomy and segmentectomy. The lymph node resection method was an independent risk factor for postoperative cough (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Lymph node resection is an independent risk factor for short-term cough after pulmonary resection with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and damage to the vagus nerve and its branches (particularly the pulmonary branches) is a possible cause of short-term cough. The mechanism of postoperative cough remains to be further studied.

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