rapid switching
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Solar Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 232 ◽  
pp. 139-145
Author(s):  
Kai Sheng ◽  
Mahmoud A. Khalifa ◽  
Zitao Wang ◽  
Jianming Zheng ◽  
Chunye Xu
Keyword(s):  

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 2565
Author(s):  
Saeid Seyedi ◽  
Nima Jafari Navimipour ◽  
Akira Otsuki

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is an innovative paradigm bringing hopeful applications in the perceptually novel computing layout in quantum electronics. The circuits manufactured by QCA technology can provide a notable decrease in size, rapid-switching velocity, and ultra-low power utilization. The demultiplexer is a beneficial component to optimize the whole process in any logical design, and therefore is very important in QCA. Moreover, fault-tolerant circuits can improve the reliability of digital circuits by redundancy. Hence, the present investigation illustrates a novel QCA-based fault-tolerant 1:2 demultiplexer construct that employs a two-input AND gate and inverter. The functionality of the suggested layout was executed and evaluated with the utilization of the QCADesigner 2.0.3 simulator. This paper utilizes cell redundancy on the wire, inverter, and AND gates for designing a fault-tolerant demultiplexer. Four components (i.e., missing cells, dislocation cells, extra cells, and misalignment) were analyzed by the QCADesigner simulator. The simulation results demonstrated that our proposed QCA-based fault-tolerant 1:2 demultiplexer acted more efficiently than prior constructs regarding delay and fault tolerance. The proposed fault-tolerant 1:2 demultiplexer could attain high fault-tolerance when single missing cell or extra cell faults exist in the QCA layout.


Friction ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhongying Ji ◽  
Shiyu Qin ◽  
Shuanhong Ma ◽  
Xin Jia ◽  
Xiaolong Wang ◽  
...  

AbstractAnisotropic friction generated by microstructured surfaces is crucial for performing functions such as directional locomotion and adhesion in biological systems. Hence, an epoxy-based shape memory polymer (SMP) incorporating Fe3O4 nanoparticles is used in this study to create a smart surface with oriented structures to mimic anisotropic friction and exploit human-developed controllable locomotion systems. Applying the specific properties of the epoxy-based SMP, fast switching friction can be achieved by adjusting the topography and stiffness of the microstructures on the surface. In addition, the photothermogenesis effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induces changes in the asymmetric topography and stiffness on the SMP surface under the irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) light, thereby inducing a rapid switching of the friction force. Furthermore, a microbot is created to demonstrate remotely controlled locomotion, such as unidirectional and round-trip movements, and braking by switching the friction force under NIR light. These results are promising for the design of new intelligent surfaces and interfaces; additionally, they may facilitate the investigation of biological structures and processes.


Biosensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 248
Author(s):  
Ryan C. Ashbaugh ◽  
Lalita Udpa ◽  
Ron R. Israeli ◽  
Assaf A. Gilad ◽  
Galit Pelled

Magnetogenetics is a new field that utilizes electromagnetic fields to remotely control cellular activity. In addition to the development of the biological genetic tools, this approach requires designing hardware with a specific set of demands for the electromagnets used to provide the desired stimulation for electrophysiology and imaging experiments. Here, we present a universal stimulus delivery system comprising four magnet designs compatible with electrophysiology, fluorescence and luminescence imaging, microscopy, and freely behaving animal experiments. The overall system includes a low-cost stimulation controller that enables rapid switching between active and sham stimulation trials as well as precise control of stimulation delivery thereby enabling repeatable and reproducible measurements.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Vanja Harsaker ◽  
Kristin Jensen ◽  
Hilde Kjernlie Andersen ◽  
Anne Catrine Martinsen

Abstract Background The aim of this study was to quantitatively benchmark iodine imaging across specific virtual monoenergetic energy levels, iodine maps and virtual non-contrast images with different phantom sizes and iodine concentrations, using a rapid switching dual-energy CT (DECT) and a dual source DECT, in order to investigate accuracy and potential differences between the technologies. Methods Solutions of iodine contrast (10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 mg/mL), sterile water and saline were scanned in a phantom on a rapid switching single-source and dual-source DECT scanners from two different vendors. The phantom was equipped with polyurethane rings simulating three body sizes. The datasets were reconstructed in virtual monoenergetic energy levels (70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 keV), virtual non-contrast images and iodine maps. HU and iodine concentrations were measured by placing ROIs in the iodine solutions. Results The iodine concentrations were reproduced with a high degree of accuracy for the single-source DECT (1.8–9.0%), showing a slight dependence on phantom size. The dual source DECT technique showed deviant values (error -33.8 to 12.0%) for high concentrations. In relation to the virtual non-contrast measurements, the images from both vendors were affected by the iodine concentration and phantom size (-127.8 to 539.1 HU). Phantom size did not affect the calculated monoenergetic attenuation values, but the attenuation values varied between the scanners. Conclusions Quantitative measurements of post-processed images are dependent on the concentration of iodine, the phantom size and different technologies. However, our study indicates that the iodine maps are reliable for quantification of iodine.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryan C Ashbaugh ◽  
Lalita Udpa ◽  
Ron R Israeli ◽  
Assaf A Gilad ◽  
Galit Pelled

Magnetogenetics is a new field that utilizes electromagnetic fields to remotely control cellular activity. In addition to the development of the biological genetic tools, this approach requires designing hardware with a specific set of demands for the electromagnets used to provide the desired stimulation for electrophysiology and imaging experiments. Here we present a universal stimulus delivery system comprised of four magnet designs compatible with electrophysiology, fluorescence and luminescence imaging, microscopy, and freely behaving animal experiments. The overall system includes a low-cost stimulation controller which enables rapid switching between active and sham stimulation trials as well as precise control of stimulation delivery.


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