chemotherapeutic agent
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112503
Justin Zeien ◽  
Wendy Qiu ◽  
Mason Triay ◽  
Hemangini A. Dhaibar ◽  
Diana Cruz-Topete ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 101303
João Luiz Baú-Carneiro ◽  
Isabela Akemi Guirao Sumida ◽  
Malu Gallon ◽  
Tânia Zaleski ◽  
Marianna Boia-Ferreira ◽  

mSphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Alison E. Murray ◽  
Chien-Chi Lo ◽  
Hajnalka E. Daligault ◽  
Nicole E. Avalon ◽  
Robert W. Read ◽  

Palmerolide A has potential as a chemotherapeutic agent to target melanoma. We interrogated the microbiome of the Antarctic ascidian, Synoicum adareanum , using a cultivation-independent high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic strategy.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1906
Mayada R. Farag ◽  
Attia A. A. Moselhy ◽  
Amany El-Mleeh ◽  
Samira H. Aljuaydi ◽  
Tamer Ahmed Ismail ◽  

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent against hematogenous and solid tumors with undesirable side effects including immunosuppression. Quercetin (QUR), a natural flavonoid abundant in fruits and vegetables, has a potent antioxidant activity. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of QUR on DOX-induced hematological and immunological dysfunctions in a rodent model. Randomly grouped rats were treated as follows: control, QUR alone (50 mg/kg for 15 days per os), DOX alone (2.5 mg/kg I/P, three times a week, for two weeks), and co-treated rats with QUR for 15 days prior to and concomitantly with DOX (for two weeks), at the doses intended for groups two and three. DOX alone significantly disrupted the erythrogram and leukogram variables. Serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, and IgE) levels and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and in spleen were declined. The DNA damage traits in spleen were elevated with an upregulation of the expression of the apoptotic markers (p53 and Caspase-3 genes) and the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α genes), while the expression of CAT gene was downregulated. These biochemical changes were accompanied by morphological changes in the spleen of DOX-treated rats. Co-treatment with QUR abated most of the DOX-mediated alterations in hematological variables, serum immunoglobulins, and spleen antioxidant status, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses, and histopathological alterations. In essence, these data suggest that QUR alleviated DOX-induced toxicities on the bone marrow, spleen, and antibody-producing cells. Supplementation of chemotherapy patients with QUR could circumvent the DOX-induced inflammation and immunotoxicity, and thus prevent chemotherapy failure.

2021 ◽  
Tsubasa Hino ◽  
Tsuyoshi Saitoh ◽  
Yasuyuki Nagumo ◽  
Naoshi Yamamoto ◽  
Noriki Kutsumura ◽  

A novel series of naphthalene derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the strategy focusing on the restriction of the flexible bond rotation of OX2R selective agonist YNT-185 (1) and their agonist activities against orexin receptors were evaluated. The 1,7-naphthalene derivatives showed superior agonist activity than 2,7-naphthalene derivatives, suggesting that the bent form of 1 would be favorable for the agonist activity. The conformational analysis of 1,7-naphthalene derivatives indicated that the twisting of the amide unit out from the naphthalene plane is important for the enhancement of activity. The introduction of a methyl group on the 2-position of 1,7-naphthalene ring effectively increased the activity, which led to the discovery of the potent OX2R agonist 28c (EC50 = 9.21 nM for OX2R, 148 nM for OX1R). The structure-activity relationship results were well supported by a comparison of the docking simulation results of the most potent derivative 28c with an active state of agonist-bound OX2R cryo-EM SPA structure. These results suggested important information for understanding the active conformation and orientation of pharmacophores in the orexin receptor agonists, which is expected as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of narcolepsy.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 5618
Xiaoru Hu ◽  
Zhengwei Ma ◽  
Lu Wen ◽  
Siyao Li ◽  
Zheng Dong

Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent but its clinical use is often limited by nephrotoxicity. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that removes protein aggregates and damaged or dysfunctional cellular organelles for maintaining cell homeostasis. Upon cisplatin exposure, autophagy is rapidly activated in renal tubule cells to protect against acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Mechanistically, the protective effect is mainly related to the clearance of damaged mitochondria via mitophagy. The role and regulation of autophagy in chronic kidney problems after cisplatin treatment are currently unclear, despite the significance of research in this area. In cancers, autophagy may prevent tumorigenesis, but autophagy may reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy by protecting cancer cells. Future research should focus on developing drugs that enhance the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin while protecting kidneys during cisplatin chemotherapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi80-vi80
Amyn Habib ◽  
Jann Sarkaria ◽  
Ke Gong ◽  
Gao Guo

Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant type of adult brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA alkylating agent, has been widely used as an effective first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of GBM patients. The efficacy of TMZ in GBM depends on the absence of the DNA repair protein MGMT which reverses the DNA damage induced by TMZ. The MGMT promoter is hypermethylated in about 45% of GBMs, resulting in lack of MGMT expression and increased responsiveness to TMZ. TMZ is less effective in MGMT unmethylated GBMs. We propose that EGFR inhibition downregulates MGMT and sensitizes glioma cells to TMZ and a combination of pretreatment with erlotinib followed by TMZ could be a useful therapeutic approach in MGMT expressing GBMs. As our experimental model, we used multiple MGMT unmethylated lines from the Mayo Clinic patient derived xenografts (PDXs) panel. Our data demonstrate that exposure of cells to erlotinib for 48h results in downregulation of MGMT at the mRNA and protein level. Additionally, EGFR inhibition activates the AP-1 transcription factor, and overexpression of AP-1 components Fos and Jun results in decreased MGMT expression in TMZ resistant PDXs, suggesting that AP-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of MGMT. We further identified that the mice implanted with TMZ resistant PDXs pretreated with afatinib followed by TMZ treatment survived longer compared to those treated with TMZ alone. Thus, the use of EGFR inhibition may enhance the sensitivity of MGMT unmethylated GBMs to TMZ.

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