S-Nitrosothiol (RS-NO) formation in proteins and peptides have been implicated as factors in the etiology of many diseases and as possible regulators of thiol protein function. They have also been proposed as possible storage forms of nitric oxide (NO). However, despite their proposed functions/roles, there appears to be little consensus regarding the physiological mechanisms of RS-NO formation and degradation. Hydropersulfides (RSSH) have recently been discovered as endogenously generated species with unique reactivity. One important reaction of RSSH is with RS-NO, which leads to the degradation of RS-NO as well as the release of NO. Thus, it can be speculated that RSSH can be a factor in the regulation of steady-state RS-NO levels, and therefore may be important in RS-NO (patho)physiology. Moreover, RSSH-mediated NO release from RS-NO may be a possible mechanism allowing RS-NO to serve as a storage form of NO.
Corn silk (Stigma maydis), rich in flavonoids, is traditionally used to treat edema, depression, and hyperglycemia and may alleviate ischemic stroke symptoms in Chinese medicine. This study examined whether corn silk water extract (CSW) could alleviate ischemic stroke symptoms and post-stroke hyperglycemia in Mongolian gerbils with transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). After being given 0.05% (I/R-LCSW) and 0.2% (I/R-HCSW), 0.02% aspirin (I/R-aspirin), and cellulose (I/R-control) in their 40 energy% fat diets for three weeks, the gerbils underwent an artery occlusion for eight minutes and reperfusion. They took the assigned diet for an additional three weeks. Sham-operated gerbils without artery occlusion had the same diet as Sham-control. CSW intake reduced neuronal cell death in gerbils with I/R and dose-dependently improved the neurological symptoms, including drooped eyes, crouched posture, flexor reflex, and walking patterns. CSW intake also alleviated the short-term memory and spontaneous alteration and grip strength compared to the I/R-control group. The protection against ischemic stroke symptoms was associated with the reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, superoxide, and lipid peroxide levels, promoting superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus in the CSW groups, compared to the I/R-control. The blood flow measured by Doppler was improved with CSW compared to the I/R-control. Furthermore, CSW intake prevented the post-stroke hyperglycemia related to decreasing pancreatic β-cell mass as much as the Sham-control, and it was related to protection against β-cell apoptosis, restoring the β-cell mass similar to the Sham-control. CSW intake elevated the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Allobaculum, and Akkermansia compared to the I/R-control. Picrust2 analysis showed that CSW increased the propionate and butyrate metabolism and the starch and glucose metabolism but reduced lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis compared to the I/R-control. In conclusion, CSW intake protects against neuronal cell death and post-hyperglycemia by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and increasing blood flow and the β-cell mass. The alleviation was associated with promoting the gut-brain axis by changing the gut microbiome community.
The pathophysiology of male infertility involves various interlinked endogenous pathways. About 50% of the cases of infertility in men are idiopathic, and oxidative stress (OS) reportedly serves as a central mechanism in impairing male fertility parameters. The endogenous antioxidant system operates to conserve the seminal redox homeostasis required for normal male reproduction. OS strikes when a generation of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms endogenous antioxidant capacity. Thus, antioxidant treatment finds remarkable relevance in the case of idiopathic male infertility or subfertility. However, due to lack of proper detection of OS in male infertility, use of antioxidant(s) in some cases may be arbitrary or lead to overuse and induction of ‘reductive stress’. Moreover, inflammation is closely linked to OS and may establish a vicious loop that is capable of disruption to male reproductive tissues. The result is exaggeration of cellular damage and disruption of male reproductive tissues. Therefore, limitations of antioxidant therapy in treating male infertility are the failure in the selection of specific treatments targeting inflammation and OS simultaneously, two of the core mechanisms of male infertility. The present review aims to elucidate the antioxidant paradox in male infertility treatment, from the viewpoints of both induction of reductive stress as well as overlooking the inflammatory consequences.
Chronic use of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is limited by serious side effects, such as tolerance and endothelial dysfunction of coronary and resistance arteries. Although GTN is used as a drug since more than 130 years, the mechanisms of the vasodilatory effects and of tolerance development to organic nitrates are still incompletely elucidated. New synthesized organic nitrates with and without antioxidant properties were characterized for their ex vivo tolerance profile, in order to investigate the oxidative stress hypothesis of nitrate tolerance. The organic nitrates studied showed different vasodilation and tolerance profiles, probably due to the ability or inability of the compounds to interact with the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme (ALDH-2) involved in bioactivation. Furthermore, nitrooxy derivatives endowed with antioxidant properties did not determine the onset of tolerance, even if bioactivated by ALDH-2. The results of this study could be further evidence of the involvement of ALDH-2 in the development of nitrate tolerance. Moreover, the behavior of organic nitrates with antioxidant properties supports the hypothesis of the involvement of ROS in inactivating ALDH-2.
The extracellular parasite and causative agent of African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) has evolved a number of strategies to avoid immune detection in the host. One recently described mechanism involves the conversion of host-derived amino acids to aromatic ketoacids, which are detected at relatively high concentrations in the bloodstream of infected individuals. These ketoacids have been shown to directly suppress inflammatory responses in murine immune cells, as well as acting as potent inducers of the stress response enzyme, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which has proven anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of the T. brucei-derived ketoacids in primary human immune cells and further examine their potential as a therapy for inflammatory diseases. We report that the T. brucei-derived ketoacids, indole pyruvate (IP) and hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP), induce HO-1 expression through Nrf2 activation in human dendritic cells (DC). They also limit DC maturation and suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which, in turn, leads to a reduced capacity to differentiate adaptive CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the ketoacids are capable of modulating DC cellular metabolism and suppressing the inflammatory profile of cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This study therefore not only provides further evidence of the immune-evasion mechanisms employed by T. brucei, but also supports further exploration of this new class of HO-1 inducers as potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
Calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile secondary messenger involved in the regulation of a plethora of different signaling pathways for cell maintenance. Specifically, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is mainly regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, whose Ca2+ exchange is mediated by appositions, termed endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), formed by proteins resident in both compartments. These tethers are essential to manage the mitochondrial Ca2+ influx that regulates the mitochondrial function of bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics, cell death, and oxidative stress. However, alterations of these pathways lead to the development of multiple human diseases, including neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth. A common hallmark in these disorders is mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ handling that contributes to neurodegeneration. In this work, we highlight the importance of Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria and how the mechanism of communication in MAMs is pivotal for mitochondrial maintenance and cell homeostasis. Lately, we outstand potential targets located in MAMs by addressing different therapeutic strategies focused on restoring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake as an emergent approach for neurological diseases.
Interest in the structure, function, and evolutionary relations of circulating and intracellular globins dates back more than 60 years to the first determination of the three-dimensional structure of these proteins. Non-erythrocytic globins have been implicated in circulatory control through reactions that couple nitric oxide (NO) signaling with cellular oxygen availability and redox status. Small artery endothelial cells (ECs) express free α-globin, which causes vasoconstriction by degrading NO. This reaction converts reduced (Fe2+) α-globin to the oxidized (Fe3+) form, which is unstable, cytotoxic, and unable to degrade NO. Therefore, (Fe3+) α-globin must be stabilized and recycled to (Fe2+) α-globin to reinitiate the catalytic cycle. The molecular chaperone α-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) binds (Fe3+) α-globin to inhibit its degradation and facilitate its reduction. The mechanisms that reduce (Fe3+) α-globin in ECs are unknown, although endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cytochrome b5 reductase (CyB5R3) with cytochrome b5 type A (CyB5a) can reduce (Fe3+) α-globin in solution. Here, we examine the expression and cellular localization of eNOS, CyB5a, and CyB5R3 in mouse arterial ECs and show that α-globin can be reduced by either of two independent redox systems, CyB5R3/CyB5a and eNOS. Together, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of blood vessel contractility.
In the present work, the role of the carboxyl group of o-dihydroxybenzoic acids (pyrocatechuic, 2,3-diOH-BA and protocatechuic, 3,4-diOH-BA) on the protection against induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Catechol (3,4-diOH-B) was included for comparison. Cell survival, antioxidant enzyme activities, and TBARS level were used to evaluate the efficiency upon the stress induced by H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide. Theoretical calculation of atomic charge values, dipole moment, and a set of indices relevant to the redox properties of the compounds was also carried out in the liquid phase (water). Irrespective of the oxidant used, 2,3-diOH-BA required by far the lowest concentration (3–5 μM) to facilitate cell survival. The two acids did not activate catalase but reduced superoxide dismutase activity (3,4-diOH-BA>2,3-diOH-BA). TBARS assay showed an antioxidant effect only when H2O2 was used; equal activity for the two acids and inferior to that of 3,4-diOH B. Overall, theoretical and experimental findings suggest that the 2,3-diOH-BA high activity should be governed by metal chelation. In the case of 3,4-diOH BA, radical scavenging increases, and chelation capacity decreases. The lack of carboxyl moiety (3,4-diOH B) adds to radical scavenging, interaction with lipophilic free radicals, and antioxidant enzymes. The present study adds to our knowledge of the antioxidant mechanism of dietary phenols in biological systems.
The need to meet the demand for transplants entails the use of steatotic livers, more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, finding the optimal composition of static cold storage (SCS) preservation solutions is crucial. Given that ROS regulation is a therapeutic strategy for liver IR injury, we have added increasing concentrations of PEG35 and glutathione (GSH) to the preservation solutions (IGL-1 and IGL-2) and evaluated the possible protection against energy depletion and oxidative stress. Fatty livers from obese Zücker rats were isolated and randomly distributed in the control (Sham) preserved (24 h at 4 °C) in IGL-0 (without PEG35 and 3 mmol/L GSH), IGL-1 (1 g/L PEG35, and 3 mmol/L GSH), and IGL-2 (5 g/L PEG35 and 9 mmol/L GSH). Energy metabolites (ATP and succinate) and the expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes (OXPHOS) were determined. Mitochondrial carrier uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the inflammasome (NLRP3) expressions were analyzed. As biomarkers of oxidative stress, protein oxidation (AOPP) and carbonylation (DNP derivatives), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)–thiobarbituric acid (TBA) adducts) were measured. In addition, the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and enzymatic (Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GSH S-T, GSH-Px, and GSH-R) antioxidant capacities were determined. Our results showed that the cold preservation of fatty liver graft depleted ATP, accumulated succinate and increased oxidative stress. In contrast, the preservation with IGL-2 solution maintained ATP production, decreased succinate levels and increased OXPHOS complexes I and II, UCP2, and PINK-1 expression, therefore maintaining mitochondrial integrity. IGL-2 also protected against oxidative stress by increasing Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and GSH levels. Therefore, the presence of PEG35 in storage solutions may be a valuable option as an antioxidant agent for organ preservation in clinical transplantation.
Unspecific peroxygenases (UPOs), whose sequences can be found in the genomes of thousands of filamentous fungi, many yeasts and certain fungus-like protists, are fascinating biocatalysts that transfer peroxide-borne oxygen (from H2O2 or R-OOH) with high efficiency to a wide range of organic substrates, including less or unactivated carbons and heteroatoms. A twice-proline-flanked cysteine (PCP motif) typically ligates the heme that forms the heart of the active site of UPOs and enables various types of relevant oxygenation reactions (hydroxylation, epoxidation, subsequent dealkylations, deacylation, or aromatization) together with less specific one-electron oxidations (e.g., phenoxy radical formation). In consequence, the substrate portfolio of a UPO enzyme always combines prototypical monooxygenase and peroxidase activities. Here, we briefly review nearly 20 years of peroxygenase research, considering basic mechanistic, molecular, phylogenetic, and biotechnological aspects.