design and synthesis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 119 ◽  
pp. 105515
Wenming Chen ◽  
Cui Zhou ◽  
Jiansheng Chen ◽  
Meizhu Wang ◽  
Fang Zhou ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Christopher R. Apostol ◽  
Kelsey Bernard ◽  
Parthasaradhireddy Tanguturi ◽  
Gabriella Molnar ◽  
Mitchell J. Bartlett ◽  

There is an unmet clinical need for curative therapies to treat neurodegenerative disorders. Most mainstay treatments currently on the market only alleviate specific symptoms and do not reverse disease progression. The Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an endogenous neuropeptide hormone, has been extensively studied as a potential regenerative therapeutic. PACAP is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and exerts its neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects via the related Class B GPCRs PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2, at which the hormone shows roughly equal activity. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) also activates these receptors, and this close analogue of PACAP has also shown to promote neuronal survival in various animal models of acute and progressive neurodegenerative diseases. However, PACAP’s poor pharmacokinetic profile (non-linear PK/PD), and more importantly its limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has hampered development of this peptide as a therapeutic. We have demonstrated that glycosylation of PACAP and related peptides promotes penetration of the BBB and improves PK properties while retaining efficacy and potency in the low nanomolar range at its target receptors. Furthermore, judicious structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed key motifs that can be modulated to afford compounds with diverse selectivity profiles. Most importantly, we have demonstrated that select PACAP glycopeptide analogues (2LS80Mel and 2LS98Lac) exert potent neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of traumatic brain injury and in a mild-toxin lesion model of Parkinson’s disease, highlighting glycosylation as a viable strategy for converting endogenous peptides into robust and efficacious drug candidates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Praveen K. Bayannavar ◽  
Ravindra R. Kamble ◽  
Shrinivas D. Joshi ◽  
Aravind R. Nesaragi ◽  
Saba Kauser J. Shaikh ◽  

Panchao Zhao ◽  
Bosheng Zhang ◽  
Xiaodong Hao ◽  
Wei Yi ◽  
Jialin Chen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Brigitta Dúzs ◽  
Gábor Holló ◽  
Gábor Schuszter ◽  
Dezső Horváth ◽  
Ágota Tóth ◽  

AbstractThe design and synthesis of crystalline materials are challenging due to the proper control over the size and polydispersity of the samples, which determine their physical and chemical properties and thus applicability. Metal − organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials in many applications due to their unique structure. MOFs have been predominantly synthesized by bulk methods, where the concentration of the reagents gradually decreased, which affected the further nucleation and crystal growth. Here we show an out-of-equilibrium method for the generation of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals, where the non-equilibrium crystal growth is maintained by a continuous two-side feed of the reagents in a hydrogel matrix. The size and the polydispersity of the crystals are controlled by the fixed and antagonistic constant mass fluxes of the reagents and by the reaction time. We also present that our approach can be extended to synthesize gold nanoparticles in a redox process.

Tianyuan Zhang ◽  
Shumin Zheng ◽  
Shuyan You ◽  
Danling Huang ◽  
Yong-Xian Cheng

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sasadhar Majhi

Abstract Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and development of abnormal cells which is a major cause of death in both advanced and emerging countries. Although currently chemotherapy is most broadly used among an extensive range of anti-cancer therapies, it includes many demerits, such as highly toxic, side-effects, expensive and partial lack of targeting specificity. So the design and synthesis of new molecules that perform specifically on target proteins in tumor cells is a focus of contemporary research. So many researchers aim for new drugs that will be more efficient, more selective, and less toxic. Because of the interesting structures and significant biological profile, naturally occurring acridines and xanthines as well as their analogues have attracted considerable interest in researchers and technologists. Natural and synthetic acridine derivatives form a significant category of heterocycles having nitrogen that is of considerable interest for organic chemists and biological communities due to their attractive anti-cancer activity. Another important class of therapeutic agents with diverse biological properties including cytotoxic effects is xanthine derivatives which are collectively called xanthines (a group of alkaloids). Among many significant molecules based on the structure of the purine, there is a group of natural xanthines, involving theobromine, caffeine, and theophylline and analogues of xanthine display anti-cancer activity. Hence the present chapter wishes to concentrate the attention on the synthesis and anti-cancer activity of acridine and xanthine-based compounds brilliantly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 ◽  
pp. 24-40
Emilio Mateev ◽  
Maya Georgieva ◽  
Alexander Zlatkov

With the significant increase of patients suffering from different types of cancer, it is evident that prompt measures in the development of novel and effective agents need to be taken. Pyrrole moiety has been found in various active compounds with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, lipid-lowering and anticancer properties. Recent advances in the exploration of highly active and selective cytotoxic structures containing pyrrole motifs have shown promising data for future investigations. Accordingly, this review presents an overview of recent developments in the pyrrole derivatives as anticancer agents, with a main focus towards the key moieties required for the anti-tumor activities. Pyrrole molecules comprising prominent targeting capacities against microtubule polymerization, tyrosine kinases, cytochrome p450 family 1, histone deacetylase and bcl-2 proteins were reported. In addition, several mechanisms of action, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibiting kinases, angiogenesis, disruption of cell migration, modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness and others were analyzed. Furthermore, in most of the discussed cases we provided synthesis schemes of the mentioned molecules. Overall, the utilization of pyrrole scaffold for the design and synthesis of novel anticancer drugs could be a promising approach for future investigations.  

Chemosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Abigail E. Reese ◽  
Charles Lochenie ◽  
Ailsa Geddis ◽  
Luana A. Machado ◽  
Marcos C. de Souza ◽  

Five new disubstituted 2,6-thioaryl-BODIPY dyes were synthesized via selective aromatic electrophilic substitution from commercially available thiophenols. The analysis of the photophysical properties via absorption and emission spectroscopy showed unusually large Stokes shifts for BODIPY fluorophores (70–100 nm), which makes them suitable probes for bioimaging. Selected compounds were evaluated for labelling primary immune cells as well as different cancer cell lines using confocal fluorescence microscopy.

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