hcv infection
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  
M. A. Kakakhel ◽  
Y. Bai ◽  
L. Xi ◽  
I. Khan ◽  

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Mohammed M. Masoud ◽  
Hany A. Sayed ◽  
Hatem A. El Masry ◽  
Shaimaa A. Abdelkareem

Abstract Background and aim HCV infection is associated with increased risk of ischemic cerebral stroke. HCV stroked patients are younger with a lower burden of classical risk factors and higher levels of systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to discover the association between HCV infection functional outcome of stroke. Patients and methods The present prospective study included 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke. All patients were subjected to careful history taking and through clinical and neurological examination. Stroke severity at presentation was assessed using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Quantitative HCV RNA test was used to diagnose HCV infection. The prognosis of the studied patients was 3 months after treatment using modified Rankin scale (mRS) for neurologic disability. Results The present study was conducted on 60 patients with ischemic stroke. They comprised 13 patients (21.7%) with HCV and 47 patients without. Stroke patients with HCV had significantly higher frequency of carotid artery stenosis, higher NIHSS (17.9 ± 6.9 versus 9.9 ± 5.3, p < 0.001) and higher frequency of severe stroke (46.1% versus 4.3%, p = 0.001) when compared with patients without HCV. Logistic regression analysis identified patients’ sex, NIHSS and HCV as significant predictors of outcome in univariate analysis. However, in multivariate analysis, only NIHSS proved to be significant. Conclusions The present study suggests a significant link between chronic HCV infection and ischemic stroke severity and poor outcome. This is probably related to the pathogenic effects of the chronic inflammatory state induced by HCV infection on the cerebral microvasculature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chun-Han Cheng ◽  
Chia-Ying Chu ◽  
Huan-Lin Chen ◽  
I-Tsung Lin ◽  
Chia-Hsien Wu ◽  

Background and AimsChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with dysregulation of glucose homeostasis, including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. However, independent risk factors associated with IR in chronic HCV-infected patients have not been detailly elucidated. Previous data regarding the impact of HCV elimination by direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) on glucose homeostasis is insufficient and controversial. This study aimed to analyze the independent factors associated with IR and to evaluate the changes in glucose homeostasis in chronic HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs therapies.MethodsWe screened 704 patients with chronic HCV infection who underwent treatment with interferon-free DAAs. Patients’ baseline characteristics, biochemical and virological data were collected. The outcome measurements were their IR and β-cell function assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method at baseline and 12-weeks post-treatment.ResultsHigh IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) was observed in 35.1% of the patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) &gt;25 kg/m2, treatment experience, elevated baseline levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride, as well as Fibrosis-4 score &gt;3.25 were independently associated with high IR. In patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR), no significant change in mean HOMA-IR was observed from baseline to 12-weeks post-treatment (2.74 ± 2.78 to 2.54 ± 2.20, p = 0.128). We observed a significant improvement in β-cell secretion stress from 121.0 ± 110.1 to 107.6 ± 93.0 (p = 0.015). Subgroup analysis revealed that SVR was associated with a significant reduction in mean HOMA-IR in patients with baseline HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (5.31 ± 3.39 to 3.68 ± 2.57, p &lt; 0.001), HCV genotype 1 (3.05 ± 3.11 to 2.62 ± 2.05, p = 0.027), and treatment experience (4.00 ± 3.37 to 3.01 ± 2.49, p = 0.039).ConclusionsThere were several independent factors associated with IR in patients with chronic HCV infection, including obesity, treatment experience, high serum ALT and triglyceride levels, as well as advanced hepatic fibrosis. After viral elimination by DAAs, we observed a significant reduction in mean HOMA-IR in patients with baseline high IR, HCV genotype 1, and treatment experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 379
Paweł Rajewski ◽  
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk ◽  
Ewa Janczewska ◽  
Andrzej Gietka ◽  
Włodzimierz Mazur ◽  

HCV infection is one of the main reasons for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent years, one finds more and more extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, including its possible influence on the development of diabetes. In the presented work, one finds the frequency analysis of the incidence of diabetes among 2898 HCV infected patients treated in Poland, and the assessment of their relevance to the HCV genotype and the progression of fibrosis. The results indicate that the hepatitis C infection seems to be a risk factor for diabetes in persons with more advanced liver fibrosis, for older people, and for the male gender. Thus, one found no differences regarding the frequency of its incidence depending on HCV genotype, including genotype 3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 359
Maria Carla Liberto ◽  
Nadia Marascio

The latest report of global hepatitis estimated 58 million people with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic disease and 1 [...]

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alba Rodríguez-García ◽  
María Linares ◽  
María Luz Morales ◽  
Sophie Allain-Maillet ◽  
Nicolas Mennesson ◽  

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable plasma cell malignancy. While its origin is enigmatic, an association with infectious pathogens including hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been suggested. Here we report nine patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or MM with previous HCV infection, six of whom received antiviral treatment. We studied the evolution of the gammopathy disease, according to anti-HCV treatment and antigen specificity of purified monoclonal immunoglobulin, determined using the INNO-LIA™ HCV Score assay, dot-blot assays, and a multiplex infectious antigen microarray. The monoclonal immunoglobulin from 6/9 patients reacted against HCV. Four of these patients received antiviral treatment and had a better evolution than untreated patients. Following antiviral treatment, one patient with MM in third relapse achieved complete remission with minimal residual disease negativity. For two patients who did not receive antiviral treatment, disease progressed. For the two patients whose monoclonal immunoglobulin did not react against HCV, antiviral treatment was not effective for MGUS or MM disease. Our results suggest a causal relationship between HCV infection and MGUS and MM progression. When HCV was eliminated, chronic antigen-stimulation disappeared, allowing control of clonal plasma cells. This opens new possibilities of treatment for MGUS and myeloma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Roberta Pereira Niquini ◽  
Jurema Corrêa da Mota ◽  
Leonardo Soares Bastos ◽  
Diego da Costa Moreira Barbosa ◽  
Juliane da Silva Falcão ◽  

AbstractWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HCV infection rates in haemodialysis patients in Brazil (Prospero CRD #42021275068). We included studies on patients under haemodialysis, comprising both convenience samples and exhaustive information from selected services. Patients underwent HCV serological testing with or without confirmation by HCV RNA PCR. Exclusion criteria were the following: absence of primary empirical information and studies without information on their respective settings, study year, accurate infection rates, or full specification of diagnostic tests. Studies with samples ≤ 30 and serial assessments with repeated information were also excluded. Reference databases included PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science for the period 1989–2019. A systematic review was carried out, followed by two independent meta-analyses: (i) studies with data on HCV prevalence and (ii) studies with a confirmatory PCR (i.e., active infection), respectively. A comprehensive set of different methods and procedures were used: forest plots and respective statistics, polynomial regression, meta-regression, subgroup influence, quality assessment, and trim-and-fill analysis. 29 studies and 11,290 individuals were assessed. The average time patients were in haemodialysis varied from 23.5 to 56.3 months. Prevalence of HCV infection was highly heterogeneous, with a pronounced decrease from 1992 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight decrease in recent years. The summary measure for HCV prevalence was 34% (95% CI 26–43%) for studies implemented before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 11% (95% CI 8–15%). Estimates for prevalence of active HCV infection were also highly heterogeneous. There was a marked decline from 1996 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight increase after 2010. The summary measure for active HCV infection was 19% (95% CI 15–25%) in studies carried out before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 9% (95% CI 6–13%). Heterogeneity was pervasive, but different analyses helped to identify its underlying sources. Besides the year each study was conducted, the findings differed markedly between geographic regions and were heavily influenced by the size of the studies and publication biases. Our systematic review and meta-analysis documented a substantial decline in HCV prevalence among Brazilian haemodialysis patients from 1992 to 2015. CKD should be targeted with specific interventions to prevent HCV infection, and if prevention fails, prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although the goal of HCV elimination by 2030 in Brazil remains elusive, it is necessary to adopt measures to achieve micro-elimination and to launch initiatives towards targeted interventions to curb the spread of HCV in people with CKD, among other high-risk groups. This is of particular concern in the context of a protracted COVID-19 pandemic and a major economic and political crisis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Geane Lopes Flores ◽  
Jurema Corrêa Mota ◽  
Larissa Tropiano da Silva Andrade ◽  
Renata Serrano Lopes ◽  
Francisco Inácio Bastos ◽  

Background and Aims. Active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is based on the detection of HCV RNA that it is effective but presents high cost and the need to hire trained personnel. This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of HCV Ag testing to identify HCV cases and to monitor antiviral treatment including DAA treatment. Methods. The studies were identified through a search in PubMed, Lilacs, and Scopus from 1990 through March 31, 2020. Cohort, cross-sectional, and randomized controlled trials were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality using an adapted Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Our primary outcome was to determine the accuracy of HCV Ag detection for the diagnosis, which we estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. Results. Of 3,062 articles identified, 54 met our eligibility criteria. The studies described cohorts from 20 countries, including 14,286 individuals with chronic HCV individuals. Studies for ECLIA technology demonstrated highest quality compared to studies that used ELISA. The pooled sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) for HCV Ag detection of active HCV infection were 98.82% ( 95 % CI = 98.04 %; 99.30%) and 98.95% ( 95 % CI = 97.84 %; 99.49%), respectively. High concordance was found between HCV Ag testing and HCV RNA detection 89.7% and 95% to evaluate antiviral treatment. Conclusions. According to our findings, HCV Ag testing could be useful to identify HCV active cases in low-resource areas. For antiviral treatment, HCV Ag testing will be useful at the end of treatment.

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