drug repurposing
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eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
James A Timmons ◽  
Andrew Anighoro ◽  
Robert J Brogan ◽  
Jack Stahl ◽  
Claes Wahlestedt ◽  

Insulin resistance (IR) contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes, dementia, viral infection, and cardiovascular disease. Drug repurposing (DR) may identify treatments for IR; however, barriers include uncertainty whether in vitro transcriptomic assays yield quantitative pharmacological data, or how to optimise assay design to best reflect in vivo human disease. We developed a clinical-based human tissue IR signature by combining lifestyle-mediated treatment responses (>500 human adipose and muscle biopsies) with biomarkers of disease status (fasting IR from >1200 biopsies). The assay identified a chemically diverse set of >130 positively acting compounds, highly enriched in true positives, that targeted 73 proteins regulating IR pathways. Our multi-gene RNA assay score reflected the quantitative pharmacological properties of a set of epidermal growth factor receptor-related tyrosine kinase inhibitors, providing insight into drug target specificity; an observation supported by deep learning-based genome-wide predicted pharmacology. Several drugs identified are suitable for evaluation in patients, particularly those with either acute or severe chronic IR.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 263
Michele Persico ◽  
Claudia Abbruzzese ◽  
Silvia Matteoni ◽  
Paola Matarrese ◽  
Anna Maria Campana ◽  

Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with a very dismal prognosis, and current therapeutic options still retain an overall unsatisfactorily efficacy in clinical practice. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches and effective medications are highly needed. Since the development of new drugs is an extremely long, complex and expensive process, researchers and clinicians are increasingly considering drug repositioning/repurposing as a valid alternative to the standard research process. Drug repurposing is also under active investigation in GBM therapy, since a wide range of noncancer and cancer therapeutics have been proposed or investigated in clinical trials. Among these, a remarkable role is played by the antipsychotic drugs, thanks to some still partially unexplored, interesting features of these agents. Indeed, antipsychotic drugs have been described to interfere at variable incisiveness with most hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we analyze the effects of antipsychotics in oncology and how these drugs can interfere with the hallmarks of cancer in GBM. Overall, according to available evidence, mostly at the preclinical level, it is possible to speculate that repurposing of antipsychotics in GBM therapy might contribute to providing potentially effective and inexpensive therapies for patients with this disease.

2022 ◽  
Huiling Zhao ◽  
humaira Rasheed ◽  
Therese Haugdahl Nost ◽  
Yoonsu Cho ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  

Proteome-wide Mendelian randomization (MR) shows value in prioritizing drug targets in Europeans, but limited data has made identification of causal proteins in other ancestries challenging. Here we present a multi-ancestry proteome-wide MR analysis pipeline based on cross-population data from the Global Biobank Meta-analysis Initiative (GBMI). We estimated the causal effects of 1,545 proteins on eight complex diseases in up to 32,658 individuals of African ancestries and 1.22 million individuals of European ancestries. We identified 45 and seven protein-disease pairs with MR and genetic colocalization evidence in the two ancestries respectively. 15 protein-disease pairs showed evidence of differential effects between males and females. A multi-ancestry MR comparison identified two protein-disease pairs with MR evidence of an effect in both ancestries, seven pairs with European-specific effects and seven with African-specific effects. Integrating these MR signals with observational and clinical trial evidence, we were able to evaluate the efficacy of one existing drug, identify seven drug repurposing opportunities and predict seven novel effects of proteins on diseases. Our results highlight the value of proteome-wide MR in informing the generalisability of drug targets across ancestries and illustrate the value of multi-cohort and biobank meta-analysis of genetic data for drug development.

Anoop Narayanan ◽  
Shay A. Toner ◽  
Joyce Jose

SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, encodes two proteases, 3CLpro and PLpro, two of the main antiviral research targets. Here we provide an overview of the structures and functions of 3CLpro and PLpro and examine strategies of structure-based drug designing and drug repurposing against these proteases. Rational structure-based drug design enables the generation of potent and target-specific antivirals. Drug repurposing offers an attractive prospect with an accelerated turnaround. Thus far, several protease inhibitors have been identified, and some candidates are undergoing trials that may well prove to be effective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Federica Riccio ◽  
Elisa Micarelli ◽  
Riccardo Secci ◽  
Giulio Giuliani ◽  
Simone Vumbaca ◽  

AbstractRepurposing of drugs for new therapeutic use has received considerable attention for its potential to limit time and cost of drug development. Here we present a new strategy to identify chemicals that are likely to promote a desired phenotype. We used data from the Connectivity Map (CMap) to produce a ranked list of drugs according to their potential to activate transcription factors that mediate myeloid differentiation of leukemic progenitor cells. To validate our strategy, we tested the in vitro differentiation potential of candidate compounds using the HL-60 human cell line as a myeloid differentiation model. Ten out of 22 compounds, which were ranked high in the inferred list, were confirmed to promote significant differentiation of HL-60. These compounds may be considered candidate for differentiation therapy. The method that we have developed is versatile and it can be adapted to different drug repurposing projects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Patrick Wu ◽  
QiPing Feng ◽  
Vern Eric Kerchberger ◽  
Scott D. Nelson ◽  
Qingxia Chen ◽  

AbstractDiscovering novel uses for existing drugs, through drug repurposing, can reduce the time, costs, and risk of failure associated with new drug development. However, prioritizing drug repurposing candidates for downstream studies remains challenging. Here, we present a high-throughput approach to identify and validate drug repurposing candidates. This approach integrates human gene expression, drug perturbation, and clinical data from publicly available resources. We apply this approach to find drug repurposing candidates for two diseases, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. We screen >21,000 compounds and replicate ten approved drugs. We also identify 25 (seven for hyperlipidemia, eighteen for hypertension) drugs approved for other indications with therapeutic effects on clinically relevant biomarkers. For five of these drugs, the therapeutic effects are replicated in the All of Us Research Program database. We anticipate our approach will enable researchers to integrate multiple publicly available datasets to identify high priority drug repurposing opportunities for human diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Charlotte Asker-Hagelberg ◽  
Tomas Boran ◽  
Christelle Bouygues ◽  
Sini Marika Eskola ◽  
Laszlo Helmle ◽  

Repurposing of authorised medicines has been under discussion for a long time. Drug repurposing is the process of identifying a new use for an existing medicine in an indication outside the scope of the original approved indication. Indeed, the COVID-19 health crisis has brought the concept to the frontline by proving the usefulness of this practise in favour of patients for an early access to treatment. Under the umbrella of the Pharmaceutical Committee and as a result of the discussions at the European Commission Expert Group on Safe and Timely Access to Medicines for Patients (STAMP) a virtual Repurposing Observatory Group (RepOG) was set up in 2019 to define and test the practical aspects of a pilot project thought to provide support to “not-for-profit” stakeholders generating or gathering data for a new therapeutic use for an authorised medicine. The group's initial plan was impacted by the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the launch of the pilot needed to be postponed. This article describes the progress and the activities conducted by the group during this past and yet extraordinary 2020–2021 to keep the project alive and explores on the background of this topic together with the obvious opportunities this health crisis has brought up in terms of repurposing of medicines.

2022 ◽  
Hulda R Jonsdottir ◽  
Denise Siegrist ◽  
Thomas Julien ◽  
Blandine Padey ◽  
Mendy Bouveret ◽  

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first identified in late 2019, has caused a worldwide pandemic with unprecedented economic and societal impact. Currently, several vaccines are available, and multitudes of antiviral treatments have been proposed and tested. Although many of the vaccines show high clinical efficacy, they are not equally accessible worldwide. Additionally, due to the continuous emergence of new virus variants, and generally short duration of immunity, the development of safe and effective antiviral treatments remains of the utmost importance. Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, substantial efforts have been undertaken to repurpose existing and approved drugs for accelerated clinical testing and potential emergency use authorizations. However, drug-repurposing using high throughput screenings in cellular assays, often identify hits that later prove ineffective in clinical studies. Our approach was to evaluate the activity of compounds that have either been tested clinically or already undergone extensive preclinical profiling, using a standardized in vitro model of human nasal epithelium. Secondly, we evaluated drug combinations using sub-maximal doses of each active single compound. Here, we report the antiviral effects of 95 single compounds and 30 combinations. The data show that selected drug combinations including 10 μM of molnupiravir, a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor, effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. This indicates that such combinations are worthy of further evaluation as potential treatment strategies against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

2022 ◽  
Joseph Rosenbluh ◽  
Natasha Tuano ◽  
Jonathan Beesley ◽  
Murray Manning ◽  
Wei Shi ◽  

Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >200 loci associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. The majority of candidate causal variants (CCVs) are in non-coding regions and likely modulate cancer risk by regulating gene expression. However, pinpointing the exact target of the association and identifying the phenotype it mediates is a major challenge in the interpretation and translation of GWAS. Here, we used pooled CRISPR activation and suppression screens to evaluate predicted GWAS target genes, and to define the cancer phenotypes they mediate. We measured proliferation in 2D, 3D, and in immune-deficient mice, as well as the effect on DNA repair. We performed 60 CRISPR screens and identified 21 genes predicted with high confidence to be GWAS targets that drive a cancer phenotype by driving a proliferation or DNA damage response in breast cells. We validated the regulation of a subset of these genes by BC-risk variants, and show the utility of expression profiling for drug repurposing. We provide a platform for identifying gene targets of risk variants, and present a blueprint of interventions for BC risk reduction and treatment.

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