cox proportional hazards
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ying Liang ◽  
Haoyan Jiao ◽  
Lingbo Qu ◽  
Hao Liu

Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use is associated with elevated endometrial cancer(EC) risk, little evidence assesses potential effect-modifiers on HRT-related EC in a long-term follow-up. In this large-scale longitudinal cohort study, we tried to evaluate the association between different HRT types/methods use and risk of EC, and reveal this risk within different body mass index (BMI) groups. In whole cohort, 677 EC occurred during mean 11.6 years follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with HRT status (never, former, or current) for risk of EC incidence. Current HRT use was not significantly associated with EC risk (HR for current vs. never HRT use: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.38) in the whole cohort, but presented a dose-response effect on increased EC risk (HR for >10-year use vs. never HRT use: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.21). Moreover, EC risk differed in distinct regimens or subsets (all Pinteraction < 0.05). Estrogen-only use was associated with elevated EC risk (HR for current vs. never HRT use: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04), but women with high BMI (> 30 kg/m2) who currently use estrogen-only harbored decreased EC risk (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.82) compared to counterparts without HRT use. Estrogen-only use is associated with increased EC risk, and precise monitoring of EC development for postmenopausal women with long-term HRT use are urgently needed. BMI could serve as an important surrogate to assess this risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Sang-Youn Lee ◽  
Eun-Jeong Ko

Purpose This study aims to investigate how three critical governance decisions by foreign firms impacted their survivability post-initial public offerings (IPO): the choice of CEO (founder vs non-founder); the power the founder CEO wields relative to the board in terms of CEO duality; and board size. Design/methodology/approach This study uses data from 86 foreign firms that completed IPOs in the US market between 2000 and 2008 and adopts a Cox proportional hazards model to examine how the founder, founder CEO duality and board size influence foreign firm delisting post-IPO. Findings A founder CEO or a founder CEO with duality (i.e. when a founder CEO is also chair of the board of directors) does not support a foreign firm’s survival post-IPO. Expectedly, board size has a negative impact on post-IPO firm survivability; however, founder CEO duality positively moderates this negative relationship. Therefore, founder CEO duality plays a positive indirect role in the context of post-IPO firms with large boards. Originality/value First, while the benefits of CEO duality have been empirically ambiguous, this study clarifies how founder CEO duality manifests its positive impacts in foreign listings. Second, by focusing on board cognition, this study confirms the negative impact of large boards, but highlights that this can be mitigated by governance leadership structure. Finally, despite organizational life-cycle theorists’ advocacy of the replacement of founder CEOs with professional CEOs in sizable ventures, this study shows the benefits of their retention when the board is large.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Jiacheng He

Abstract Purpose Creatinine to body weight (Cre/BW) ratio is considered the independent risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but research on this relationship is limited. The relationship between the Cre/BW ratio and T2DM among Chinse individuals is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Cre/BW ratio and the risk of T2DM in the Chinese population. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study from a prospectively collected database. We included a total of 200,658 adults free of T2DM at baseline. The risk of incident T2DM according to Cre/BW ratio was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, and a two-piece wise linear regression model was developed to find out the threshold effect. Results With a median follow-up of 3.13 ± 0.94 years, a total of 4001 (1.99%) participants developed T2DM. Overall, there was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with the risk of incident T2DM (P for non-linearity < 0.001). When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was less than 0.86, the risk of T2DM decreased significantly as the Cre/BW ratio increased [0.01 (0.00, 0.10), P < 0.001]. When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was between 0.86 and 1.36, the reduction in the risk of developing T2DM was not as significant as before [0.22 (0.12, 0.38), P < 0.001]. In contrast, when the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was greater than 1.36, the reduction in T2DM incidence became significantly flatter than before [0.73 (0.29,1.8), P = 0.49]. Conclusion There was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with incidence of T2DM in general Chinese adults. A negative curvilinear association between Cre/BW ratio and incident T2DM was present, with a saturation effect predicted at 0.86 and 1.36 of Cre/BW ratio (× 100).

Jakob Weitzer ◽  
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald ◽  
Olivia I. Okereke ◽  
Ichiro Kawachi ◽  
Eva Schernhammer

AbstractDispositional optimism is a potentially modifiable factor and has been associated with multiple physical health outcomes, but its relationship with depression, especially later in life, remains unclear. In the Nurses´ Health Study (n = 33,483), we examined associations between dispositional optimism and depression risk in women aged 57–85 (mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8), with 4,051 cases of incident depression and 10 years of follow-up (2004–2014). We defined depression as either having a physician/clinician-diagnosed depression, or regularly using antidepressants, or the presence of severe depressive symptoms using validated self-reported scales. Age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) across optimism quartiles and for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment of the optimism score. In sensitivity analyses we explored more restrictive definitions of depression, potential mediators, and moderators. In multivariable-adjusted models, women with greater optimism (top vs. bottom quartile) had a 27% (95%CI = 19–34%) lower risk of depression. Every 1-SD increase in the optimism score was associated with a 15% (95%CI = 12–18%) lower depression risk. When applying a more restrictive definition for clinical depression, the association was considerably attenuated (every 1-SD increase in the optimism score was associated with a 6% (95%CI = 2–10%-) lower depression risk. Stratified analyses by baseline depressive symptoms, age, race, and birth region revealed comparable estimates, while mediators (emotional support, social network size, healthy lifestyle), when combined, explained approximately 10% of the optimism-depression association. As social and behavioral factors only explained a small proportion of the association, future research should investigate other potential pathways, such as coping strategies, that may relate optimism to depression risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Erik D. Slawsky ◽  
Anjum Hajat ◽  
Isaac C. Rhew ◽  
Helen Russette ◽  
Erin O. Semmens ◽  

Abstract Background Research suggests that greenspace may confer neurocognitive benefits. This study examines whether residential greenspace is associated with risk of dementia among older adults. Methods Greenspace exposure was computed for 3047 participants aged 75 years and older enrolled in the Gingko Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS) across four U.S. sites that prospectively evaluated dementia and its subtypes, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and mixed pathologies, using neuropsychiatric evaluations between 2000 and 2008. After geocoding participant residences at baseline, three greenspace metrics—Normalized Difference Vegetative Index, percent park overlap within a 2-km radius, and linear distance to nearest park—were combined to create a composite residential greenspace measure categorized into tertiles. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the associations between baseline greenspace and risk of incident all-cause dementia, AD, and Mixed/VaD. Results Compared to low residential greenspace, high residential greenspace was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (HR = 0.76 95% CI: 0.59,0.98) in models adjusted for multiple covariates. After additional adjustment for behavioral characteristics, Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 status, and other covariates, the association was slightly attenuated (HR = 0.82; 95% CI:0.63,1.06). Those exposed to medium levels of greenspace also had 28% lower risk (HR = 0.72; CI: 0.55, 0.95) of dementia compared to those with low greenspace in adjusted models. Subtype associations between high residential greenspace and AD were not statistically significant. Greenspace was not found to be significantly associated with mixed/vascular pathologies. Conclusions This study showed evidence for an association between residential greenspace and all-cause dementia among older adults. Future research with larger sample size, precise characterization of different dementia subtypes, and assessment of residential greenspace earlier in life may help clarify the role between exposure to greenspace and dementia risk.

Zainab Toteh Osakwe ◽  
Ohiro Oni-Eseleh ◽  
Gabriella Bianco ◽  
Rose Saint Fleur-Calixte

Background: We sought to examine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics present on admission to HHC associated with discharge to hospice. Methods: We used a 5% random sample of 2017 national Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) data. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was estimated for the primary outcome (discharge to hospice) to examine the associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of HHC patients. Results: Among 489, 230 HHC patients, 4268 were discharged to hospice. The median (interquartile range) length of HHC stay for patients discharged to hospice care was 33 (14-78) days. Compared to White patients, Black, Hispanic, and other race, (hazard ratio [HR] = .50 [95% confidence interval, CI = .44–.57]), (HR = .53 [95% CI = .46–.62]), and (HR = .49 [95% CI = .40–.61], respectively) was associated with shorter time to discharge to hospice care. Clinical characteristics including severe dependence in activities of daily (ADL) (HR = 1.68 [95% CI = 1.01–2.78]), cognitive impairment (HR = 1.10 [95% CI = 1.01–1.20]), disruptive behavior daily (HR = 1.11 [95% CI = 1.02–1.22]), and inability to feed oneself (HR = 4.78, 95% CI = 4.30, 5.31) was associated with shorter time to discharge to hospice. Symptoms of anxiety daily (HR = 1.55 [95% CI = 1.43–1.68]), and pain daily or all the time (HR = 1.54 [95% CI = 1.43–1.64]) were associated with shorter time to discharge to hospice. Conclusions: High symptom burden, ADL dependency, and cognitive impairment on admission to HHC services was associated with greater likelihood of discharge to hospice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chenjie Xu ◽  
Zhi Cao ◽  
Hongxi Yang ◽  
Yabing Hou ◽  
Xiaohe Wang ◽  

Background:The EAT-Lancet Commission has promulgated a sustainable dietary guideline and recommended that it was designed to improve the human health and support environmental sustainability.Objective:This research was designed to explore the association between this healthy diet pattern (EAT-Lancet diet pattern, EAT-LDP) and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Methods:Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 59,849 participants from the UK Biobank without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancers were included at baseline. The EAT-LDP score was constructed on the sum of 14 food components and then categorized into three tertiles. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were conducted to explore the association between EAT-LDP score and the risk of incident T2D. A mediation analysis was also implemented to disentangle the role of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in the relationship between EAT-LDP score and T2D.Results:During a median follow-up of 10 years, 2,461 incident T2D cases were recorded. In analyses that compared tertile 3 of the EAT-LDP score (highest) with tertile 1 (lowest), the hazard ratio (HR) for T2D was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72–0.90) after adjusting for sociodemographic status and health-related factors. Participants who reported a one-point increase in the diet score were associated with a 6% decrease in risk of T2D (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91–0.97). A significant indirect association was observed between the EAT-LDP score and T2D (β: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.65–0.67), indicating that 44% of the association of EAT-LDP score with T2D was mediated by BMI. Additionally, 40% of the association of EAT-LDP score with T2D was mediated by waist circumference was also observed.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that a higher adherence to EAT-LDP contributes to lower risk of T2D. Further independent validation is needed to be conducted before applying the EAT-LDP to inform dietary guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Bing Yan ◽  
Fengming Ji ◽  
Chengchuang Wu ◽  
Ye Li ◽  
Haoyu Tang ◽  

Abstract Objective: To analyze the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) for Wilm’s tumor (WT) in Kunming Children’s Hospital, and investigate the risk factors affecting the prognosis of WT.Method: The clinic-pathological data were collected and analyzed in patients with unilateral WT treated in Kunming Children's Hospital from January 2017 to July 2021. Research objects were selected according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The risk factors and independent risk factors that affect the prognosis of patients with WT were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. Outcome: A total of 68 children were included in this study, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 92.65%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis results showed that ethnicity (P=0.020), the tumor volume of resection (P=0.001), histological type (P<0.001), and postoperative recurrence (P<0.001) were the factors affecting the prognosis of children with WT. The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed that only the histological type (P=0.028) was the independent risk factor for the prognosis of WT.Conclusion: The efficacy of MDT for WT was satisfying. The histological type has important predictive value for the prognosis of WT, and the patient with unfavorable histology has a poor prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Junxian Li ◽  
Chenyang Li ◽  
Ziwei Feng ◽  
Luyang Liu ◽  
Liwen Zhang ◽  

Abstract High levels of circulating estradiol (E2) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer, whereas its relationship with breast cancer prognosis is still unclear. We evaluated the effect of E2 concentration on survival endpoints among 8766 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2017 from the Tianjin Breast Cancer Cases Cohort. Levels of serum E2 were measured in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) between quartile of E2 levels and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of breast cancer. The penalized spline was then used to test for non-linear relationships between E2 (continuous variable) and survival endpoints. 612 deaths and 982 progressions occurred over follow-up through 2017. Compared to women in the quartile 3, the highest quartile of E2 was associated with reduced risk of both PFS in pre-menopausal women (HR=1.79, 95% CI: 1.17-2.75, P=0.008) and OS in post-menopausal women (HR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.74, P=0.023). OS and PFS in pre-menopausal women exhibited a nonlinear relation (“L-shaped” and “U-shaped”, respectively) with E2 levels. However, there was a linear relationship in post-menopausal women. Moreover, patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-negative) breast cancer showed a “U-shaped” relationship with OS and PFS in pre-menopausal women. Pre-menopausal breast cancer patients have a plateau stage of prognosis at the intermediate concentrations of E2, whereas post-menopausal patients have no apparent threshold, and ER status may have an impact on this relationship.

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