Community Acquired Pneumonia
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Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Harshil Shah ◽  
Jude ElSaygh ◽  
Abdur Raheem ◽  
Mohammed A Yousuf ◽  
Lac Han Nguyen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
E. Blanc ◽  
G. Chaize ◽  
S. Fievez ◽  
C. Féger ◽  
E. Herquelot ◽  

Abstract Background The prognosis of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with regards to intensive care unit (ICU) admission, short- and long-term mortality is correlated with patient’s comorbidities. For patients hospitalized for CAP, including P-CAP, we assessed the prognostic impact of comorbidities known as at-risk (AR) or high-risk (HR) of pneumococcal CAP (P-CAP), and of the number of combined comorbidities. Methods Data on hospitalizations for CAP among the French 50+ population were extracted from the 2014 French Information Systems Medicalization Program (PMSI), an exhaustive national hospital discharge database maintained by the French Technical Agency of Information on Hospitalization (ATIH). Their admission diagnosis, comorbidities (nature, risk type and number), other characteristics, and their subsequent hospital stays within the year following their hospitalization for CAP were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ICU transfer, short- and 1-year in-hospital mortality and all covariates. Results From 182,858 patients, 149,555 patients aged ≥ 50 years (nonagenarians 17.8%) were hospitalized for CAP in 2014, including 8270 with P-CAP. Overall, 33.8% and 90.5% had ≥ 1 HR and ≥ 1 AR comorbidity, respectively. Cardiac diseases were the most frequent AR comorbidity (all CAP: 77.4%). Transfer in ICU occurred for 5.4% of CAP patients and 19.4% for P-CAP. Short-term and 1-year in-hospital mortality rates were 10.9% and 23% of CAP patients, respectively, significantly lower for P-CAP patients: 9.2% and 19.8% (HR 0.88 [95% CI 0.84–0.93], p < .0001). Both terms of mortality increased mostly with age, and with the number of comorbidities and combination of AR and HR comorbidities, in addition of specific comorbidities. Conclusions Not only specific comorbidities, but also the number of combined comorbidities and the combination of AR and HR comorbidities may impact the outcome of hospitalized CAP and P-CAP patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Qiang Ren ◽  
Hebing Liu ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Deyu Dai ◽  
Zhennan Tian ◽  

Objectives. The objective of this study is to unravel the correlation between RDW and the severity and prognosis of CAP, as well as exploring RDW with the inflammatory markers white blood cells (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT). Methods. According to the data characteristics, appropriate statistical methods were selected to analyze the relationship between RDW and the severity and prognosis of CAP patients and to determine whether RDW is associated with the inflammatory markers WBC, CRP, and PCT. Results. The results show that with the increase of PSI and CURB-65 values, the proportion of patients with RDW ≥ 12.987% is significantly higher than that of RDW < 12.987% ( P < 0.01 ). When RDW is combined with PSI or CURB-65 to predict the 90-day mortality of CAP patients, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve increased prominently, and if RDW, PSI, and CURB-65 are combined, the area under the ROC curve is maximized. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the higher RDW value is associated with short-term adverse outcomes in CAP patients. We also find that when RDW, PSI, and CURB-65 are combined, the best performance is achieved to predict CAP 90-day mortality risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 89 (4) ◽  
pp. 451-455
Andra Pekša ◽  
Madara Tirzīte ◽  
Sergejs Daņilovs

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Florian Brandes ◽  
Melanie Borrmann ◽  
Dominik Buschmann ◽  
Agnes S. Meidert ◽  
Marlene Reithmair ◽  

Abstract Background Progranulin is a widely expressed pleiotropic growth factor with a central regulatory effect during the early immune response in sepsis. Progranulin signaling has not been systematically studied and compared between sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), COVID-19 pneumonia and a sterile systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). We delineated molecular networks of progranulin signaling by next-generation sequencing (NGS), determined progranulin plasma concentrations and quantified the diagnostic performance of progranulin to differentiate between the above-mentioned disorders using the established biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for comparison. Methods The diagnostic performance of progranulin was operationalized by calculating AUC and ROC statistics for progranulin and established biomarkers in 241 patients with sepsis, 182 patients with SIRS, 53 patients with CAP, 22 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and 53 healthy volunteers. miRNAs and mRNAs in blood cells from sepsis patients (n = 7) were characterized by NGS and validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort (n = 39) to identify canonical gene networks associated with upregulated progranulin at sepsis onset. Results Plasma concentrations of progranulin (ELISA) in patients with sepsis were 57.5 (42.8–84.9, Q25–Q75) ng/ml and significantly higher than in CAP (38.0, 33.5–41.0 ng/ml, p < 0.001), SIRS (29.0, 25.0–35.0 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and the healthy state (28.7, 25.5–31.7 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher progranulin concentrations than patients with CAP (67.6, 56.6–96.0 vs. 38.0, 33.5–41.0 ng/ml, p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of progranulin for the differentiation between sepsis vs. SIRS (n = 423) was comparable to that of procalcitonin. AUC was 0.90 (95% CI = 0.87–0.93) for progranulin and 0.92 (CI = 0.88–0.96, p = 0.323) for procalcitonin. Progranulin showed high discriminative power to differentiate bacterial CAP from COVID-19 (sensitivity 0.91, specificity 0.94, AUC 0.91 (CI = 0.8–1.0) and performed significantly better than PCT, IL-6 and CRP. NGS and partial RT-qPCR confirmation revealed a transcriptomic network of immune cells with upregulated progranulin and sortilin transcripts as well as toll-like-receptor 4 and tumor-protein 53, regulated by miR-16 and others. Conclusions Progranulin signaling is elevated during the early antimicrobial response in sepsis and differs significantly between sepsis, CAP, COVID-19 and SIRS. This suggests that progranulin may serve as a novel indicator for the differentiation between these disorders. Trial registration: registration number NCT03280576 Registered November 19, 2015.

2021 ◽  
Vol 89 (4) ◽  
pp. 359-368
Giedrė Cincilevičiūtė ◽  
Vaida Averjanovaitė ◽  
Rūta Mereškevičienė ◽  
Gabrielė Pliatkienė ◽  
Rolandas Zablockis ◽  

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