Expansion dataset COVID-19 chest X-ray using data augmentation and histogram equalization

Farah Flayeh Alkhalid ◽  
Abdulhakeem Qusay Albayati ◽  
Ahmed Ali Alhammad

The main important factor that plays vital role in success the deep learning is the deep training by many and many images, if neural networks are getting bigger and bigger but the training datasets are not, then it sounds like going to hit an accuracy wall. Briefly, this paper investigates the current state of the art of approaches used for a data augmentation for expansion the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) chest X-ray images using different data augmentation methods (transformation and enhancement) the dataset expansion helps to rise numbers of images from 138 to 5520, the increasing rate is 3,900%, this proposed model can be used to expand any type of image dataset, in addition, the dataset have used with convolutional neural network (CNN) model to make classification if detected infection with COVID-19 in X-ray, the results have gotten high training accuracy=99%

2020 ◽  
pp. 9-11
Zohra Ahmad ◽  
Parul Dutta ◽  
Deepjyoti Das Choudhury ◽  
Satabdi Kalita ◽  
Zohaib Hussain ◽  

Corona Virus Disease 19 or COVID-19, was first detected in Wuhan province in China in December 2019 and reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31, 2019 [1]. It was declared a pandemic on March 11th, 2020 [2] and has till now affected 40 million people all around the world resulting in 1.1 million deaths (as of 18th Oct, 2020) [3]. As the world is reeling under the burden of the disease, it has been imperative for the radiologists to be familiar with the imaging appearance of the disease. Thoracic imaging with chest X-ray and CT is the key modality for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases. Although CT is more sensitive, the immense challenge of disinfection control in the modality may disrupt the service availability and portable X-ray may be considered to minimize the risk [4]. Use of portable X-ray has played a vital role in all the areas around the world during this pandemic. The purpose of this pictorial review is to represent the frequently encountered features and abnormalities in chest X-ray and strengthen the knowledge of the health-care workers in this war against the pandemic.

Oussama Dahmane ◽  
Mustapha Khelifi ◽  
Mohammed Beladgham ◽  
Ibrahim Kadri

In this paper, to categorize and detect pneumonia from a collection of chest X-ray picture samples, we propose a deep learning technique based on object detection, convolutional neural networks, and transfer learning. The proposed model is a combination of the pre-trained model (VGG19) and our designed architecture. The Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center in Guangzhou, China provided the chest X-ray dataset used in this study. There are 5,000 samples in the data set, with 1,583 healthy samples and 4,273 pneumonia samples. Preprocessing techniques such as contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) and brightness preserving bi-histogram equalization was also used (BBHE) to improve accuracy. Due to the imbalance of the data set, we adopted some training techniques to improve the learning process of the samples. This network achieved over 99% accuracy due to the proposed architecture that is based on a combination of two models. The pre-trained VGG19 as feature extractor and our designed convolutional neural network (CNN).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Liping Chen ◽  
Tahereh Rezaei

The new coronavirus, COVID-19, has affected people all over the world. Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that can infect animals and humans and cause respiratory distress; these discomforts may be as mild as a cold or as severe as pneumonia. Correct detection of this disease can help to avoid its spreading increasingly. In this paper, a new CAD-based approach is suggested for the optimal diagnosis of this disease from chest X-ray images. The proposed method starts with a min-max normalization to scale all data into a normal scale, and then, histogram equalization is performed to improve the quality of the image before main processing. Afterward, 18 different features are extracted from the image. To decrease the method difficulty, the minimum features are selected based on a metaheuristic called Archimedes optimization algorithm (AOA). The model is then implemented on three datasets, and its results are compared with four other state-of-the-art methods. The final results indicated that the proposed method with 86% accuracy and 96% precision has the highest balance between accuracy and reliability with the compared methods as a diagnostic system for COVID-19.

2020 ◽  
Olaide N. Oyelade ◽  
Absalom E. Ezugwu

AbstractThe novel Coronavirus, also known as Covid19, is a pandemic that has weighed heavily on the socio-economic affairs of the world. Although researches into the production of relevant vaccine are being advanced, there is, however, a need for a computational solution to mediate the process of aiding quick detection of the disease. Different computational solutions comprised of natural language processing, knowledge engineering and deep learning have been adopted for this task. However, deep learning solutions have shown interesting performance compared to other methods. This paper therefore aims to advance the application deep learning technique to the problem of characterization and detection of novel coronavirus. The approach adopted in this study proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN) model which is further enhanced using the technique of data augmentation. The motive for the enhancement of the CNN model through the latter technique is to investigate the possibility of further improving the performances of deep learning models in detection of coronavirus. The proposed model is then applied to the COVID-19 X-ray dataset in this study which is the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chest X-Ray dataset obtained from Kaggle for the purpose of promoting early detection and screening of coronavirus disease. Results obtained showed that our approach achieved a performance of 100% accuracy, recall/precision of 0.85, F-measure of 0.9, and specificity of 1.0. The proposed CNN model and data augmentation solution may be adopted in pre-screening suspected cases of Covid19 to provide support to the use of the well-known RT-PCR testing.

Complexity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Aijaz Ahmad Reshi ◽  
Furqan Rustam ◽  
Arif Mehmood ◽  
Abdulaziz Alhossan ◽  
Ziyad Alrabiah ◽  

Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in general and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in particular have attained successful results in medical image analysis and classification. A deep CNN architecture has been proposed in this paper for the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on the chest X-ray image classification. Due to the nonavailability of sufficient-size and good-quality chest X-ray image dataset, an effective and accurate CNN classification was a challenge. To deal with these complexities such as the availability of a very-small-sized and imbalanced dataset with image-quality issues, the dataset has been preprocessed in different phases using different techniques to achieve an effective training dataset for the proposed CNN model to attain its best performance. The preprocessing stages of the datasets performed in this study include dataset balancing, medical experts’ image analysis, and data augmentation. The experimental results have shown the overall accuracy as high as 99.5% which demonstrates the good capability of the proposed CNN model in the current application domain. The CNN model has been tested in two scenarios. In the first scenario, the model has been tested using the 100 X-ray images of the original processed dataset which achieved an accuracy of 100%. In the second scenario, the model has been tested using an independent dataset of COVID-19 X-ray images. The performance in this test scenario was as high as 99.5%. To further prove that the proposed model outperforms other models, a comparative analysis has been done with some of the machine learning algorithms. The proposed model has outperformed all the models generally and specifically when the model testing was done using an independent testing set.

Nashat Alrefai ◽  
Othman Ibrahim

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recent global pandemic that has affected many countries around the world, causing serious health problems, especially in the lungs. Although temperature testing is suggested as a firstline test for COVID-19, it was not reliable because many diseases have the same symptoms. Thus, we propose a deep learning method based on X-ray images that used a convolutional neural network (CNN) and transfer learning (TL) for COVID-19 diagnosis, and using gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) technique for producing visual explanations for the COVID-19 infection area in the lung. The low sample size of coronavirus samples was considered a challenge, thus, this issue was overridden using data augmentation techniques. The study found that the proposed (CNN) and the modified pre-trained networks VGG16 and InceptionV3 achieved a promising result for COVID-19 diagnosis by using chest X-ray images. The proposed CNN was able to differentiate 284 patients with COVID-19 or normal with 98.2 percent for training accuracy and 96.66 percent for test accuracy and 100.0 percent sensitivity. The modified VGG16 achieved the best classification result between all with 100.0 percent for training accuracy and 98.33 percent for test accuracy and 100.0 percent sensitivity, but the proposed CNN overcame the others in the side of reducing the computational complexity and training time significantly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (5) ◽  
pp. 81
Sherif Elbishlawi ◽  
Mohamed H. Abdelpakey ◽  
Mohamed S. Shehata ◽  
Mostafa M. Mohamed

The COVID-19 pandemic has been deemed a global health pandemic. The early detection of COVID-19 is key to combating its outbreak and could help bring this pandemic to an end. One of the biggest challenges in combating COVID-19 is accurate testing for the disease. Utilizing the power of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to detect COVID-19 from chest X-ray images can help radiologists compare and validate their results with an automated system. In this paper, we propose a carefully designed network, dubbed CORONA-Net, that can accurately detect COVID-19 from chest X-ray images. CORONA-Net is divided into two phases: (1) The reinitialization phase and (2) the classification phase. In the reinitialization phase, the network consists of encoder and decoder networks. The objective of this phase is to train and initialize the encoder and decoder networks by a distribution that comes out of medical images. In the classification phase, the decoder network is removed from CORONA-Net, and the encoder network acts as a backbone network to fine-tune the classification phase based on the learned weights from the reinitialization phase. Extensive experiments were performed on a publicly available dataset, COVIDx, and the results show that CORONA-Net significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art networks with an overall accuracy of 95.84%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Aysen Degerli ◽  
Mete Ahishali ◽  
Mehmet Yamac ◽  
Serkan Kiranyaz ◽  
Muhammad E. H. Chowdhury ◽  

AbstractComputer-aided diagnosis has become a necessity for accurate and immediate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) detection to aid treatment and prevent the spread of the virus. Numerous studies have proposed to use Deep Learning techniques for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, they have used very limited chest X-ray (CXR) image repositories for evaluation with a small number, a few hundreds, of COVID-19 samples. Moreover, these methods can neither localize nor grade the severity of COVID-19 infection. For this purpose, recent studies proposed to explore the activation maps of deep networks. However, they remain inaccurate for localizing the actual infestation making them unreliable for clinical use. This study proposes a novel method for the joint localization, severity grading, and detection of COVID-19 from CXR images by generating the so-called infection maps. To accomplish this, we have compiled the largest dataset with 119,316 CXR images including 2951 COVID-19 samples, where the annotation of the ground-truth segmentation masks is performed on CXRs by a novel collaborative human–machine approach. Furthermore, we publicly release the first CXR dataset with the ground-truth segmentation masks of the COVID-19 infected regions. A detailed set of experiments show that state-of-the-art segmentation networks can learn to localize COVID-19 infection with an F1-score of 83.20%, which is significantly superior to the activation maps created by the previous methods. Finally, the proposed approach achieved a COVID-19 detection performance with 94.96% sensitivity and 99.88% specificity.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 608
Danielle Burton ◽  
Suzanne Lenhart ◽  
Christina J. Edholm ◽  
Benjamin Levy ◽  
Michael L. Washington ◽  

The 2014–2016 West African outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was the largest and most deadly to date. Contact tracing, following up those who may have been infected through contact with an infected individual to prevent secondary spread, plays a vital role in controlling such outbreaks. Our aim in this work was to mechanistically represent the contact tracing process to illustrate potential areas of improvement in managing contact tracing efforts. We also explored the role contact tracing played in eventually ending the outbreak. We present a system of ordinary differential equations to model contact tracing in Sierra Leonne during the outbreak. Using data on cumulative cases and deaths, we estimate most of the parameters in our model. We include the novel features of counting the total number of people being traced and tying this directly to the number of tracers doing this work. Our work highlights the importance of incorporating changing behavior into one’s model as needed when indicated by the data and reported trends. Our results show that a larger contact tracing program would have reduced the death toll of the outbreak. Counting the total number of people being traced and including changes in behavior in our model led to better understanding of disease management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 3974
Laila Bashmal ◽  
Yakoub Bazi ◽  
Mohamad Mahmoud Al Rahhal ◽  
Haikel Alhichri ◽  
Naif Al Ajlan

In this paper, we present an approach for the multi-label classification of remote sensing images based on data-efficient transformers. During the training phase, we generated a second view for each image from the training set using data augmentation. Then, both the image and its augmented version were reshaped into a sequence of flattened patches and then fed to the transformer encoder. The latter extracts a compact feature representation from each image with the help of a self-attention mechanism, which can handle the global dependencies between different regions of the high-resolution aerial image. On the top of the encoder, we mounted two classifiers, a token and a distiller classifier. During training, we minimized a global loss consisting of two terms, each corresponding to one of the two classifiers. In the test phase, we considered the average of the two classifiers as the final class labels. Experiments on two datasets acquired over the cities of Trento and Civezzano with a ground resolution of two-centimeter demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed model.

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