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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (7) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Christian Berger ◽  
Philipp Eichhammer ◽  
Hans P. Reiser ◽  
Jörg Domaschka ◽  
Franz J. Hauck ◽  

Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystems tend to grow both in scale and complexity, as they consist of a variety of heterogeneous devices that span over multiple architectural IoT layers (e.g., cloud, edge, sensors). Further, IoT systems increasingly demand the resilient operability of services, as they become part of critical infrastructures. This leads to a broad variety of research works that aim to increase the resilience of these systems. In this article, we create a systematization of knowledge about existing scientific efforts of making IoT systems resilient. In particular, we first discuss the taxonomy and classification of resilience and resilience mechanisms and subsequently survey state-of-the-art resilience mechanisms that have been proposed by research work and are applicable to IoT. As part of the survey, we also discuss questions that focus on the practical aspects of resilience, e.g., which constraints resilience mechanisms impose on developers when designing resilient systems by incorporating a specific mechanism into IoT systems.

Yumeng Huang ◽  
Qian Ji ◽  
Yanyan Zhu ◽  
Shengqiao Fu ◽  
Shuangwei Chen ◽  

Excessive neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is an important contributor to sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Recent reports indicate that platelets can induce neutrophil extracellular trap formation. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear. Tph1 gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for peripheral 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) synthesis, was knocked out in mice to simulate peripheral 5-HT deficiency. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was performed to induce sepsis. We found that peripheral 5-HT deficiency reduced NET formation in lung tissues, alleviated sepsis-induced lung inflammatory injury, and reduced the mortality rate of CLP mice. In addition, peripheral 5-HT deficiency was shown to reduce the accumulation of platelets and NETs in the lung of septic mice. We found that platelets from wild-type (WT), but not Tph1 knockout (Tph1−/−), mice promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NET formation. Exogenous 5-HT intervention increased LPS-induced NET formation when Tph1−/− platelets were co-cultured with WT neutrophils. Therefore, our study uncovers a mechanism by which peripheral 5-HT aggravated sepsis-induced ALI by promoting NET formation in the lung of septic mice.

2022 ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Wenhang Li ◽  
Xiandan Jiang ◽  
Xinyi Cui ◽  
Hongjie You ◽  

Abstract Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are effective for treating fibrotic liver. BMSCs contain a variety of proteins and RNAs, which have functions similar to their derived cells, but the specific mechanism is unclear. In a recent study, ferulic acid (FA) was highly effective in treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, we combined BMSCs and FA to treat CCl4-induced fibrosis models. Methods: First, we used BMSCs and FA to treat CCl4-induced fibrosis models and observed their therapeutic effect, investigated the specific mechanism of this combination therapy in liver fibrosis. Second, we created a BMSC/hepatic stellate cell (HSC) co-culture system and used FA to treat activated HSCs. We next used cytochalasin D and angiotensin II to investigate whether BMSCs and FA inactivate HSCs through cytoskeletal rearrangement. MiR-19b-3p was enriched in BMSCs and targeted TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βR2). We transfected miR-19b-3p into HSCs and BMSCs separately and detected whether BMSCs transferred miR-19b-3p to HSCs or inactivated HSCs. Results: We used BMSCs and FA to treat CCl4-induced fibrosis models and found that the combination therapy had better effects than FA or BMSCs alone. The expression of the profibrotic markers α-SMA and COL1-A1 was significantly decreased in HSCs co-cultured with BMSCs and FA treatment. Cytoskeletal rearrangement in HSCs was inhibited, and RhoA/ROCK pathway gene expression was decreased. With angiotensin II treatment, COL1-A1 and a-SMA expression increased, while with cytochalasin D treatment, profibrotic gene expression decreased in HSCs. COL1-A1, α-SMA and RhoA/ROCK pathway genes were decreased in activated HSCs treated with a miR-19b-3p mimic, indicating that miR-19b-3p inactivated HSCs by suppressing RhoA/ROCK signalling. In contrast, profibrotic genes were significantly decreased in BMSCs treated with the miR-19b-3p mimic or a miR-19b-3p inhibitor and FA compared with BMSCs treated with the miR-19b-3p mimic alone.Conclusion: BMSCs attenuated HSC activation and liver fibrosis by inhibiting cytoskeletal rearrangement and delivering miR-19b-3p to activated HSCs, inactivating RhoA/ROCK signaling. FA-based combination therapy showed better inhibitory effects on HSC activation, suggesting that BMSCs and their miRNAs combined with FA are novel antifibrotic therapeutics for treating chronic liver disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiaqi Zhang ◽  
Mengru Xie ◽  
Xiaofei Huang ◽  
Guangjin Chen ◽  
Ying Yin ◽  

Atherosclerosis (AS), one of the most common types of cardiovascular disease, has initially been attributed to the accumulation of fats and fibrous materials. However, more and more researchers regarded it as a chronic inflammatory disease nowadays. Infective disease, such as periodontitis, is related to the risk of atherosclerosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), one of the most common bacteria in stomatology, is usually discovered in atherosclerotic plaque in patients. Furthermore, it was reported that P. gingivalis can promote the progression of atherosclerosis. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of P. gingivalis in atherosclerosis attracted attention, which is thought to be crucial to the therapy of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is much complicated, and many kinds of cells participate in it. By summarizing existing studies, we find that P. gingivalis can influence the function of many cells in atherosclerosis. It can induce the dysfunction of endothelium, promote the formation of foam cells as well as the proliferation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, and lead to the imbalance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) cells, ultimately promoting the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. This article summarizes the specific mechanism of atherosclerosis caused by P. gingivalis. It sorts out the interaction between P. gingivalis and AS-related cells, which provides a new perspective for us to prevent or slow down the occurrence and development of AS by inhibiting periodontal pathogens.

2021 ◽  
pp. 109-134
Olga Antononoka

According to Jaqueline Berndt, Thomas LaMarre, and other critics, manga is a highly participatory media form. Narratives with vibrant characters and creative inconsistences in the plotline encourage the reader to recontextualise the text, create new contents and unfold activities which go beyond reading (such as fan art and CosPlay). Recent popularity of manga about Japanese traditional arts – for example, Kabuki – further expanded the potential interaction with manga and other popular media to include (re)discovering traditional Japanese culture. Examples, such as Kabukumon by Tanaka Akio and David Miyahara (Morning 2008-2011), or Kunisaki Izumo no jijō by Hirakawa Aya (Weekly Shōnen Sunday 2010-2014) and a variety of other manga, anime and light novels exemplify this tendency. Consequently, influential franchises, such as Naruto and One Piece boast adaptations as Super Kabuki stage-plays. Furthermore, Jessica Bauwens-Sugimoto observes how thematic and stylistic overreaching in contemporary manga further distort the notions of the gendered genre that lays at the foundation of the manga industry. In this case, Kabuki theatre as a theme employs a variety of gender fluid characters and situations. For this purpose, Kabuki manga utilise cross-genre narrative and stylistic tropes, from overtly parodying borrowed tropes, to homage, and covert inclusions. On the example of Kabuki-manga I will explore a larger trend in manga to employ elements of female genres in male narratives, thus expanding the target readership. My paper explores specific mechanism that facilitates reading manga cross-genre, I also inquire what novel critical potential thematic and stylistic exchange between audiences may entail.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 11-24
Henryk Kowalczyk ◽  
Andrzej Gębura ◽  
Tomasz Tokarski ◽  
Tadeusz Kwiatkowski

Abstract The most important element that has an impact on the safety of flight includes the helicopter power plant and the transmission shaft assembly. Monitoring with the use of the traditional vibroacoustic techniques does not provide satisfactory results. It is especially difficult to detect spatial resonance couplings, which may result in dangerous and rapid breaking of elements. This article focuses on a specific mechanism for formation and deepening of resonance and effects of resonance couplings of two subassemblies. For their monitoring, the FAM-C method was applied. It uses an on-board generator as a sensor. This is a synchronous method, which enables one to detect the onset of spatial resonance.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 942
Anna Siekierka ◽  
Katarzyna Smolińska-Kempisty ◽  
Joanna Wolska

Membrane technologies have found a significant application in separation processes in an exceeding range of industrial fields. The crucial part that is decided regarding the efficiency and effectivity of separation is the type of membrane. The membranes deal with separation problems, working under the various mechanisms of transportation of selected species. This review compares significant types of entrapped matter (ions, compounds, and particles) within membrane technology. The ion-exchange membranes, molecularly imprinted membranes, smart membranes, and adsorptive membranes are investigated. Here, we focus on the selective separation through the above types of membranes and detect their preparation methods. Firstly, the explanation of transportation and preparation of each type of membrane evaluated is provided. Next, the working and application phenomena are evaluated. Finally, the review discusses the membrane modification methods and briefly provides differences in the properties that occurred depending on the type of materials used and the modification protocol.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Xiao-xiang Tan ◽  
Li-Li Qiu ◽  
Jie Sun

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), as one of the common postoperative complications, mainly occurs after surgery and anesthesia, especially in the elderly. It refers to cognitive function changes such as decreased learning and memory ability and inability to concentrate. In severe cases, there could be personality changes and a decline in social behavior. At present, a great deal of research had been carried out on POCD, but its specific mechanism remains unclear. The release of peripheral inflammation-related factors, the degradation and destruction of the blood-brain barrier, the occurrence of central inflammation, and the neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss could be promoted by neuroinflammation indicating that inflammatory mechanisms may play key roles in the occurrence of POCD.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7069
Francesca Musumeci ◽  
Annarita Cianciusi ◽  
Ilaria D’Agostino ◽  
Giancarlo Grossi ◽  
Anna Carbone ◽  

In the last few years, small molecules endowed with different heterocyclic scaffolds have been developed as kinase inhibitors. Some of them are being tested at preclinical or clinical levels for the potential treatment of neuroblastoma (NB). This disease is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood and is responsible for 10% to 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Despite the availability of some treatments, including the use of very toxic cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, high-risk (HR)-NB patients still have a poor prognosis and a survival rate below 50%. For these reasons, new pharmacological options are urgently needed. This review focuses on synthetic heterocyclic compounds published in the last five years, which showed at least some activity on this severe disease and act as kinase inhibitors. The specific mechanism of action, selectivity, and biological activity of these drug candidates are described, when established. Moreover, the most remarkable clinical trials are reported. Importantly, kinase inhibitors approved for other diseases have shown to be active and endowed with lower toxicity compared to conventional cytotoxic agents. The data collected in this article can be particularly useful for the researchers working in this area.

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