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Alvaro Cobo-Calvo ◽  
Ana Zabalza ◽  
Jordi Río ◽  
Georgina Arrambide ◽  
Susana Otero-Romero ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Todd Nelson ◽  
Lan-Xin Zhang ◽  
Hui Guo ◽  
Luis Nacul ◽  
Xiaowei Song

Background: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multisystem medical condition with heterogeneous symptom expression. Currently, there is no effective cure or treatment for the standard care of patients. A variety of ME/CFS symptoms can be linked to the vital life functions of the brainstem, the lower extension of the brain best known as the hub relaying information back and forth between the cerebral cortex and various parts of the body.Objective/Methods: Over the past decade, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have emerged to understand ME/CFS with interesting findings, but there has lacked a synthesized evaluation of what has been found thus far regarding the involvement of the brainstem. We conducted this study to review and evaluate the recent MRI findings via a literature search of the MEDLINE database, from which 11 studies met the eligibility criteria.Findings: Data showed that MRI studies frequently reported structural changes in the white and gray matter. Abnormalities of the functional connectivity within the brainstem and with other brain regions have also been found. The studies have suggested possible mechanisms including astrocyte dysfunction, cerebral perfusion impairment, impaired nerve conduction, and neuroinflammation involving the brainstem, which may at least partially explain a substantial portion of the ME/CFS symptoms and their heterogeneous presentations in individual patients.Conclusions: This review draws research attention to the role of the brainstem in ME/CFS, helping enlighten future work to uncover the pathologies and mechanisms of this complex medical condition, for improved management and patient care.

D. I. Sadykova ◽  
T. P. Makarova ◽  
D. R. Sabirova ◽  
N. N. Firsova ◽  
A. A. Kucheryavaya ◽  

Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is classified into familial and non-familial, which reflects the need to study the genetic basis of the disease. The article describes a clinical case of a familial form of non-compact cardiomyopathy in combination with a dilated form of cardiomyopathy. The article provides data of echocardiographic and MRI studies. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic research, there was revealed a mutation in the MYH7 gene p.IIe201Thr in a heterozygous state, which is associated with the development of non-compact cardiomyopathy and dilated form of cardiomyopathy.

2021 ◽  
Jenna Merenstein ◽  
Ilana J. Bennett

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of brain and neurocognitive aging rarely include oldest-old adults (ages 85+). But predictions of neurocognitive aging theories derived from MRI findings in younger-old adults (ages 65-85) may not generalize into advanced age, particularly given the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment/dementia in the oldest-old. Here, we reviewed the MRI literature in oldest-old adults and interpreted findings within the context of regional variation, compensation, brain maintenance, and reserve theories. Structural MRI studies revealed regional variation in brain aging as larger age effects on medial temporal and posterior regions for oldest-old than younger-old adults. They also revealed that brain maintenance explained preserved cognitive functioning into the tenth decade of life. Very few functional MRI studies support compensatory activity in oldest-old adults who perform as well as younger groups, although there was evidence that higher brain reserve in oldest-old adults may mediate effects of brain aging on cognition. Despite some continuity, different cognitive and neural profiles across the older adult lifespan should be addressed in modern neurocognitive aging theories.

Perception ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 030100662110583
G D Schott

Although typically associated with the Mannerist artistic style of the Renaissance, artists throughout history have created pictures and sculptures of humans depicted in an unrealistic and abnormally elongated form. The scientific basis for adopting this form of distortion is discussed here. First, probably subconsciously, artists have appreciated that the human form displays a symmetry which is often aesthetically pleasing. Second, perceived beauty is enhanced when the symmetrical image is elongated. There is evidence that the appeal of artworks which feature these characteristics can be attributed to their ease of cerebral processing, a view supported by functional MRI studies indicating there is an overlap between regions of the brain devoted to processing of symmetry and those devoted to appreciation of beauty.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yong-shou Liu ◽  
Yong-ming Wang ◽  
Ding-jun Zha

Introduction: Sleep disorders (SLD) are supposed to be associated with increased risk and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with AD are more likely to show SLD. However, neurobiological performance of patients with both AD and SLD in previous studies is inconsistent, and identifying specific patterns of the brain functional network and structural characteristics in this kind of comorbidity is warranted for understanding how AD and SLD symptoms interact with each other as well as finding effective clinical intervention. Thus, the aims of this systematic review were to summarize the relevant findings and their limitations and provide future research directions.Methods: A systematic search on brain functional and structural changes in patients with both AD and SLD was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases.Results: Nine original articles published between 2009 and 2021 were included with a total of 328 patients with comorbid AD and SLD, 367 patients with only AD, and 294 healthy controls. One single-photon emission computed tomography study and one multislice spiral computed tomography perfusion imaging study investigated changes of cerebral blood flow; four structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigated brain structural changes, two of them used whole brain analysis, and another two used regions of interest; two resting-state functional MRI studies investigated brain functional changes, and one 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) investigated 18F-FDG-PET uptake in patients with comorbid AD and SLD. Findings were inconsistent, ranging from default mode network to sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and pineal gland, which may be due to different imaging techniques, measurements of sleep disorder and subtypes of AD and SLD.Conclusions: Our review provides a systematic summary and promising implication of specific neuroimaging dysfunction underlying co-occurrence of AD and SLD. However, limited and inconsistent findings still restrict its neurobiological explanation. Further studies should use unified standards and comprehensive brain indices to investigate the pathophysiological basis of interaction between AD and SLD symptoms in the development of the disease spectrums.

Alaa S. Montaser ◽  
Elise Y. Cho ◽  
Michael P. Catalino ◽  
Jack Hanna ◽  
Timothy R. Smith ◽  

Abstract Introduction Rene Descartes (1596–1650), the famous philosopher and scientist, identified the pineal gland as the only cerebral structure not represented bilaterally, the “seat of the soul”; and the source of rational thought. Pineal cysts (PCs) are often incidentally identified in MRI studies, with a reported prevalence of 1 to 4.3%. Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) are pituitary lesions accounting for <1% of intracranial masses. There are scant data in the literature addressing any association between these two midline cystic lesions. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients presenting at our institution from April 2008 through February 2020, whose records indicated a diagnosis of RCC, and those whose records included pineal lesions. Our objective was to evaluate the association between these two midline lesions. Brain MRI studies were reviewed for the presence of PCs; only patients with PCs that measured ≥5 mm in diameter were included. Results We identified 116 patients with RCCs, and 34 patients with PCs, treated from April 2008 through February 2020. Among the RCC group, 14/116 patients (12%) had PCs. Among the PC group, 3/34 patients (8.8%) had RCCs. Overall, 17 patients (11.3%) had concomitant RCCs and PCs. The mean maximal diameter of the PCs was 7.5 mm (range = 5–17 mm), whereas the mean maximal diameter of RCCs was 13 mm (range = 5–40 mm). Conclusion The incidental diagnosis of cystic lesions of the pineal and pituitary gland is increasingly reported, primarily because of advances in current diagnostic modalities. Our data demonstrated no clear consensual association between pineal and pituitary cysts.

2021 ◽  
Alexander J. Dufford ◽  
C. Alice Hahn ◽  
Hannah Peterson ◽  
Silvia Gini ◽  
Saloni Mehta ◽  

AbstractIn neuroimaging, spatial normalization is an important step that maps an individual’s brain onto a template brain permitting downstream statistical analyses. Yet, in infant neuroimaging, there remain several technical challenges that have prevented the establishment of a standardized template for spatial normalization. Thus, many different approaches are used in the literature. To quantify the popularity and variability of these approaches in infant neuroimaging studies, we performed a systematic review of infant MRI studies from 2000 to 2020. Here, we present results from 833 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were classified into 1) processing data in single subject space, 2) using a predefined, or “off the shelf”, template, 3) creating a study specific template or 4) using a hybrid of these methods. We found that across the studies in the systematic review, single subject space was the most used (no common space). This was the most used common space for DWI and structural MRI studies while fMRI studies preferred off the shelf atlases. We found a pattern such that more recently published studies are more commonly using off the shelf atlases. When considering special populations, preterm studies most used single subject space while, when no special populations were being analyzed, an off the shelf template was most common. The most used off the shelf templates were the UNC Infant Atlases (26.1%). Using a systematic review of infant neuroimaging studies, we highlight a lack of an established “standard” template brain in these studies.

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