Journal of Neurological Surgery Part B Skull Base
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Published By Georg Thieme Verlag Kg

2193-634x, 2193-6331
Updated Thursday, 02 December 2021

Peyton L. Nisson ◽  
Michael Gaub ◽  
Gabriel S. Gonzales-Portillo ◽  
Nikolay Martirosyan ◽  
Christopher Le ◽  

AbstractSinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare head-and-neck neoplasm that has a propensity to locally invade vital structures. Currently, the combination of surgical resection and radiation remains the optimal treatment.1 However, the extent of disease burden and involvement of surrounding anatomy may make these inoperable. Here, we demonstrate the successful application of multidisciplinary approach for surgical resection of a large, complex SCC lesion centered at the superior nasal cavity with extension into the eye orbits and brain. A two-step approach was performed; transcribiform, endoscopic piecemeal resection with reconstruction of the skull base, followed by a bifrontal craniotomy. Reconstruction was achieved using an inlay of DuraMatrix allograft (Stryker Inc., Kalamzoo, Michigan, United States) followed by an inlay of AlloDerm (Allergan Inc., Irvine, California, United States), anchored anteriorly and posteriorly with wide wings placed over the respective orbital roofs. Major steps include (1) a summary of the patient presentation and preoperative imaging, (2) resection of the tumor endonasally, (3) resection of the tumor intracranially from a bifrontal craniotomy, and (4) a review of the postoperative imaging. The patient tolerated the procedure (Fig. 1) well, returned to his baseline with no new neurologic deficits, and was placed on 6-week antibiotics regimen for osteomyelitis discovered during the operation. Approximately, 2 months after discharge, the patient unfortunately returned with altered mental status, was found to have sepsis, and expired shortly thereafter. This operative video illustrates the technical steps and capabilities of surgical treatment, achieving near-complete gross total resection of a complex SCC lesion using a multidisciplinary approach.The link to the video can be found at:

Hideaki Ono ◽  
Seiei Torazawa ◽  
Takeo Tanishima ◽  
Akira Tamura ◽  
Isamu Saito

AbstractWe present a 52-year-old male case of right trigeminal neurinoma at lateral cavernous sinus. The tumor was 40 mm in maximum diameter, obviously compressed temporal lobe and encased internal carotid artery. Extradural middle fossa and transcavernous approach was applied and the tumor was resected via Parkinson's triangle. This approach enabled safe and effective tumor resection, sufficient visualization, and operative field (Figs. 1 and 2). We performed dissection of the tumor from trigeminal nerve, tentorium, and middle fossa and resect the tumor around internal carotid artery sufficiently. Postoperative course was good without any new neurological deficit. This surgical method is considered safe and effective for the resection of the tumor at lateral cavernous sinus.The link to the video can be found at:

Austin Thomas-Kim Hoke ◽  
Madison J Malfitano ◽  
Adam M Zanation ◽  
Brian D Thorp ◽  
Adam J Kimple ◽  

Objectives: Pain management remains a point of emphasis given the ongoing opioid crisis. There are no studies in the literature interrogating opioid prescribing and use following endoscopic pituitary surgery. This study investigate provider prescribing tendency, patient utilization of analgesics, and patient outcomes regarding pain management after endoscopic pituitary surgery. Methods: We identified 100 patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary surgery at one institution from 2016 – 2018 in the electronic medical record (EMR) and state narcotic database to determine postoperative analgesic regimens. A telephone survey was used to characterize postoperative analgesic use and satisfaction with prescribed regimens. Results: 52 different pain control regimens were prescribed to study patients. 93% of study patients were prescribed an opioid postoperatively. The average quantity of opioids prescribed per patient in morphine milligram equivalents (MME) was 625 (equivalent 83 oxycodone 5 mg tablets) with an average MME/day of 59 (equivalent 8 oxycodone 5 mg tablets). Average total MME, MME/day, and pills/tablets per opioid prescription decreased significantly over the study period. 71% of survey respondents who used opioids reported using <25% of their prescription. The majority of prescription narcotic users consumed >50% of their postoperative opioid intake in the first 24-48 hours after discharge. There were no significant differences in pain outcome between opioid users and non-opioid users. Conclusions: Vast heterogeneity exists in narcotic prescribing by providers at our institution following endoscopic pituitary surgery. Narcotic prescribing patterns exceeded most patients’ analgesic needs. Opioid analgesics were not superior to non-opioids regimens in patient-reported pain outcomes in this study population.

Ivanna Nebor ◽  
Zoe Anderson ◽  
Juan C. Mejia-Munne ◽  
Ahmed Hussein ◽  
Kora Montemagno ◽  

Abstract Objective Endonasal dural suturing (EDS) has been reported to decrease the incidence of cerebrospinal fluid fistula. This technique requires handling of single-shaft instrumentation in the narrow endonasal corridor. It has been proposed that three-dimensional (3D) endoscopes were associated with improved depth perception. In this study, we sought to perform a comparison of two-dimensional (2D) versus 3D endoscopy by assessing surgical proficiency in a simulated model of EDS. Materials and Methods Twenty-six participants subdivided into groups based on previous endoscopic experience were asked to pass barbed sutures through preset targets with either 2D (Storz Hopkins II) or 3D (Storz TIPCAM) endoscopes on 3D-printed simulation model. Surgical precision and procedural time were measured. All participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire. Results Novice, intermediate, and expert groups took 11.0, 8.7, and 5.7 minutes with 2D endoscopy and 10.9, 9.0, and 7.6 minutes with 3D endoscopy, respectively. The average deviation for novice, intermediate, and expert groups (mm) was 5.5, 4.4, and 4.3 with 2D and 6.6, 4.6, and 3.0 with 3D, respectively. No significant difference in procedural time or accuracy was found in 2D versus 3D endoscopy. 2D endoscopic visualization was preferred by the majority of expert/intermediate participants, while 3D endoscopic visualization by the novice group. Conclusion In this pilot study, there was no statistical difference in procedural time or accuracy when utilizing 2D versus 3D endoscopes. While it is possible that widespread familiarity with 2D endoscopic equipment has biased this study, preliminary analysis suggests that 3D endoscopy offers no definitive advantage over 2D endoscopy in this simulated model of EDS.

Lulia A. Kana ◽  
Joshua D. Smith ◽  
Emily L. Bellile ◽  
Rashmi Chugh ◽  
Erin L. McKean

Abstract Objectives The role of surgery in management of sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma (SNRMS) has traditionally been limited, owing to anatomic and technological challenges and the established role of systemic therapy. Herein, we report our institutional experience with surgical management of SNRMS, with a particular focus on operative approaches, extent and outcomes. Design This study is a retrospective cohort study. Setting This study was conducted at a single-institution, academic center. Participants Patients of any age with histologically confirmed RMS of the nasal cavity, maxillary, ethmoid, frontal, or sphenoid sinus, nasolacrimal duct, or nasopharynx presenting between 1994 and 2020 were included in this study. Main Outcome Measures Demographics, tumor characteristics, operative settings, complications and recurrence, and survival outcomes were the primary outcomes of this study. Results Our study cohort comprised of 29 patients (mean [range] age: 27.0 [3.1–65.7], n = 12 [41%] female). Tumors of the nasal cavity (n = 10, 35%) and ethmoid sinuses (n = 10, 35%) and those with alveolar histology (n = 21, 72%) predominated. Patients who had surgery as part of their treatment (n = 13, 45%) had improved distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.98, p = 0.05) as compared with those who did not have surgery. Surgical approaches included open (n = 7), endoscopic (n = 4), and combined (n = 2). Eight of these 13 patients (62%) had an R0 resection. Additionally, surgical salvage of recurrent disease was employed in five patients (17%). Conclusion SNRMS is an aggressive malignancy with a high rate of recurrence and spread requiring a multidisciplinary approach for optimal outcomes. Our data supports an expanding role for surgery for SNRMS given its feasibility, tolerability, and potential to improve outcomes.

Tyler D Alexander ◽  
Chandala Chitguppi ◽  
Sarah Collopy ◽  
Kira Murphy ◽  
Pascal Lavergne ◽  

Introduction Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are one of the most common type of intracranial neoplasm with increased incidence in elderly patients. The outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) specifically on elderly patients remains unclear. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study to compare elderly patients (age 65 years) with non-elderly patients (age <65 years) who underwent ETS for PA from January 2005 to December 2021. Surgical outcomes, including extent of resection, complication profile, length of stay, and endocrinopathy rates, were compared between elderly and non-elderly patients. Results A total of 690 patients were included with 197 (29%) being elderly. Elderly patients showed higher rates of hypertension (p<0.05), myocardial infarction (p<0.01), and atrial fibrillation (p=0.01) but not other comorbidities. Elderly patients also had more frequent optic nerve involvement (72% of cases vs. 61%, p=0.01). Tumor characteristics and other patient variables were otherwise similar between younger and elderly patients. Postoperative CSF leaks (2% vs. 2%, p=0.8), 30-day readmission, reoperation, postoperative complications, and postoperative endocrinopathies were similar between younger and older patients. Subdividing patients into age <65, 65-79, and >80 also did not demonstrate a worsening of surgical outcomes with age. Conclusion For well selected elderly patients in experienced endoscopic skull base centers, good surgical outcomes similarly to younger patients may be achieved.

Philippe Lavigne ◽  
paul gardner ◽  
Eric W Wang ◽  
Carl H. Snyderman

Intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are associated with increased risk of post-operative CSF leaks despite multilayered reconstruction with vascularized tissue. A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the use of peri-operative lumbar drains (LD) in high-risk skull base defects identified a significant reduction in post-operative CSF leak incidence (21.2% vs. 8.2%; p=0.017). This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of the selective use of CSF diversion, for patients with intraoperative CSF leaks involving endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) to the skull base. Method: Consecutive endoscopic endonasal surgeries of the skull base from a pre-RCT cohort and post-RCT cohort were compared. The following case characteristics between the two cohorts were examined: patient age, body mass index (BMI), rate of revision surgery, tumor histology, use of CSF diversion, and vascularized reconstruction. The primary measured outcome was post-operative CSF leak. Results: The pre-RCT cohort included 76 patients and the post-RCT cohort, 77 patients, with dural defects in either the anterior or posterior cranial fossa (pituitary and parasellar/suprasellar surgeries excluded). There was a significant reduction in the incidence of post-operative CSF leak in the post-RCT cohort (27.6% vs. 12.9%; p=0.04). On subgroup analysis, there was a trend toward improvement in CSF leak rate of the anterior cranial fossa (19.2% vs 10.5%; p=0.27) whereas CSF leak rates of the posterior cranial fossa were significantly reduced compared to the pre-RCT cohort (41.4% vs 12.8%; p=0.02). Conclusion This study demonstrates that the integration of selective CSF diversion into the reconstructive algorithm improved post-operative CSF leak rates.

Vincent Ye ◽  
Serge Makarenko ◽  
Peter Gooderham ◽  
Ryojo Akagami

BACKGROUND The authors have previously described the Unified Visual Function Scale (UVFS). Here we assessed intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the scale, and investigated correlations with patient quality of life (QoL). METHODS Eight healthcare practitioners independently applied the UVFS in 20 representative cases from our parasellar meningioma series. Scoring was compared to consensus grades assigned by lead authors. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Fleiss’s , and Cohen’s  respectively. Patient QoL was assessed Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) or Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS), and correlated with UVFS grades for each eye. RESULTS The interobserver ICC was 0.734 (95% CI, 0.652 to 0.811), with Fleiss’s  of 0.758, 0.691, and 0.899 for grades A, B, and C respectively. The intraobserver ICC was 0.758 (95% CI 0.638 to 0.872), and Fleiss’s  was 0.604, 0.268, and 0.910 for grades A, B, and C respectively. The Cohen’s  for agreement between UVFS category grades and consensus grades was 0.816 (95 CI, 0.698 to 0.934). Survey response rate was 51% (27/53). The UVFS demonstrated strong correlation with VFQ-25 subdivisions general vision (r = 0.7712), near activities (r = 0.7262), peripheral vision (r = 0.6722), and driving (r = 0.6608), and also demonstrated strong correlation with the overall ADVS score (r = 0.5902). CONCLUSION This study shows that the UVFS is valid within a small subset of observers, and accurately reflects patient quality of life. It is robust and practical, which make it suitable for broad implementation. 

Colin J. Przybylowski ◽  
Kelly A. Shaftel ◽  
Benjamin K. Hendricks ◽  
Kristina M. Chapple ◽  
Shawn M. Stevens ◽  

Abstract Objectives To better understand the risk-benefit profile of skull base meningioma resection in older patients, we compared perioperative complications among older and younger patients. Design Present study is based on retrospective outcomes comparison. Setting The study was conducted at a single neurosurgery institute at a quaternary center. Participants All older (age ≥ 65 years) and younger (<65 years) adult patients treated with World Health Organization grade 1 skull base meningiomas (2008–2017). Main Outcome Measures Perioperative complications and patient functional status are the primary outcomes of this study. Results The analysis included 287 patients, 102 older and 185 younger, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 72 (5) years and 51 (9) years (p < 0.01). Older patients were more likely to have hypertension (p < 0.01) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01) but other patient and tumor factors did not differ (p ≥ 0.14). Postoperative medical complications were not significantly different in older versus younger patients (10.8 [11/102] vs. 4.3% [8/185]; p = 0.06) nor were postoperative surgical complications (13.7 [14/102] vs. 10.8% [20/185]; p = 0.46). Following anterior skull base meningioma resection, diabetes insipidus (DI) was more common in older versus younger patients (14 [5/37] vs. 2% [1/64]; p = 0.01). Among older patients, a decreasing preoperative Karnofsky performance status score independently predicted perioperative complications by logistic regression analysis (p = 0.02). Permanent neurologic deficits were not significantly different in older versus younger patients (12.7 [13/102] vs. 10.3% [19/185]; p = 0.52). Conclusion The overall perioperative complication profile of older and younger patients was similar after skull base meningioma resection. Older patients were more likely to experience DI after anterior skull base meningioma resection. Decreasing functional status in older patients predicted perioperative complications.

Morcos N. Nakhla ◽  
Tara J. Wu ◽  
Emmanuel G. Villalpando ◽  
Reza Kianian ◽  
Anthony P. Heaney ◽  

Abstract Background Improved evidence-based guidelines on the optimal type and duration of antibiotics for patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) are needed. We analyze the infectious complications among a large cohort of EETS patients undergoing a standardized regimen of cefazolin for 24 hours, followed by cephalexin for 7 days after surgery (clindamycin if penicillin/cephalosporin allergic). Methods A retrospective review of 132 EETS patients from 2018 to 2020 was conducted. Patient, tumor, and surgical characteristics were collected, along with infection rates. Multivariate logistic regression determined the variable(s) independently associated with infectious outcomes. Results Nearly all patients (99%) received postoperative antibiotics with 78% receiving cefazolin, 17% receiving cephalexin, 3% receiving clindamycin, and 2% receiving other antibiotics. Fifty-three patients (40%) had an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and three patients (2%) developed a postoperative CSF leak requiring surgical repair. Within 30 days, no patients developed meningitis. Five patients (4%) developed sinusitis, two patients (3%) developed pneumonia, and one patient (1%) developed cellulitis at a peripheral intravenous line. Two patients (2%) developed an allergy to cephalexin, requiring conservative management. After adjustment for comorbidities and operative factors, presence of postoperative infectious complications was independently associated with increased LOS (β = 3.7 days; p = 0.001). Conclusion Compared with reported findings in the literature, we report low rates of infectious complications and antibiotic intolerance, despite presence of a heavy burden of comorbidities and high intraoperative CSF leak rates among our cohort. These findings support our standardized 7-day perioperative antibiotic regimen.

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