urban morphology
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2022 ◽  
Vol 92 ◽  
pp. 101733
Aditya Tafta Nugraha ◽  
Ben J. Waterson ◽  
Simon P. Blainey ◽  
Frederick J. Nash

2022 ◽  
Vol 269 ◽  
pp. 112794
Xiao Xiang Zhu ◽  
Chunping Qiu ◽  
Jingliang Hu ◽  
Yilei Shi ◽  
Yuanyuan Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Constanza Arévalo ◽  
Juan David Amaya-Espinel ◽  
Cristian Henríquez ◽  
José Tomás Ibarra ◽  
Cristián Bonacic

Abstract Urban green spaces provide natural habitat for birds in urban landscapes, yet the effects of noise and surrounding urban morphology on bird community structure and distribution are not well understood in Latin America, the second most urbanized region in the world. Santiago of Chile is the single city belonging to the Mediterranean ecosystem in South America and is subject to extensive urbanization as seen throughout Latin America. We examined the role of 65 urban green spaces (6 large: PAR and 59 small: SGS) in harboring native birds during winter 2019, analyzing the quality of green areas in terms of vegetation (i.e. NDVI, native vegetation, and tree cover), exotic bird species, noise levels, and surrounding urban matrix (i.e. building height and cover). Significantly higher noise levels were detected in SGS, along with significantly greater exotic bird (n=4) richness and abundance than PAR, which possessed significantly greater native bird (n=25) richness and abundance. Native birds were more abundant than exotic birds in green spaces with average noise levels < 52 dB and average NDVI > 0.5. Occupancy models indicate that green space occupancy by 50% of modeled native bird species was influenced by maximum noise levels, playing a larger role than vegetation (30%) and the urban matrix (0%). We stress the importance of developing networks of large green spaces in rapidly urbanizing regions, with abundant tree cover, surrounded by smaller urban morphology, and regulating noise levels to ensure the conservation of native bird communities in cities, particularly those that are threatened.

Smart Cities ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-70
Silvia Croce ◽  
Stefano Tondini

In the current scenario of massive urbanization and global climate change, an intelligent monitoring of the environmental variables is becoming fundamental to ensure good living conditions in cities. Indeed, the acquisition of data with high spatiotemporal resolution can enable the assessment of environmental vulnerabilities in urban areas towards the definition of responsive adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this context, the current work presents a two-fold approach based on low-cost cloud-connected sensors for (i) fixed and (ii) mobile monitoring of several environmental parameters. This paper, which focuses on the measurement aspects of the urban micro-climate, describes in detail the hardware and software components of both approaches, and how to exploit them for setting up a field campaign. The methods were tested in the city of Bolzano (Italy), demonstrating their suitability for identifying the spatial variability of the microclimate in relation to the urban morphology, and for highlighting the presence of the urban heat island and estimating its intensity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 186 ◽  
pp. 108436
Jens Forssén ◽  
Andreas Gustafson ◽  
Meta Berghauser Pont ◽  
Marie Haeger-Eugensson ◽  
Christine Achberger ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vítor Manuel Araújo de Oliveira

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 17-29
Sayed Ahmed ◽  

The German capital city of Berlin, amongst all European cities, is well known as one of the most freethinking center but yet historical. Its industrial historic structures and heritage elements over the spree river shore are reanalyzed and reexamined in this case study with emphasis on club culture and social recreation. The important issue is that, the structures and architectural style of these few surviving buildings have the common features and also diversities which were never brought under light and even ignored to let them became hub for unsocial activities like drug dealing and unhygienic adobes for homeless peoples. To discover and recognize their current contribution and possible social attribute over the whole city fabric, the main construct of this paper is to rethink Berlin’s so called public cohesion on the basis of recreational character and its associated urban order. The research question is: “What is the topmost role played by such built elements for formation of a distinct civic culture and keep Berlin alive?” To reveal the conceivable theoretical framework of this study will try to accentuate same facts and aspects followed by descriptive-analytical method and suggest independent and dependent variables, possible cooperative urban inventions based on the inhabitants’ interest, protest and demands against privatization of Media Spree. Documentation, field survey, associated drawings, related photographs from different time intervals and model studying was helpful for analyzing the urban morphology. The proposed design will try to indicate that the historic industrial buildings, pubs and markets, art practice and the overall landscape has tremendous bilateral relations for the wellbeing of city dwellers; which could be shaped well into a main ‘Axis’ of cultural activities, which Berlin is not posed with currently.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 313
Alessandra Gaeta ◽  
Gianluca Leone ◽  
Alessandro Di Menno di Bucchianico ◽  
Mariacarmela Cusano ◽  
Raffaela Gaddi ◽  

High-resolution measurements of ultrafine particle concentrations in ambient air are needed for the study of health human effects of long-term exposure. This work, carried out in the framework of the VIEPI project (Integrated Evaluation of Indoor Particulate Exposure), aims to extend current knowledge on small-scale spatio-temporal variability of Particle Number Concentration (PNC, considered a proxy of the ultrafine particles) at a local scale domain (1 km × 1 km). PNC measurements were made in the university district of San Lorenzo in Rome using portable condensation particle counters for 7 consecutive days at 21 sites in November 2017 and June 2018. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were performed in the area for winter, summer and the overall period. The log-transformed two-hour PNC averages constitute the response variable, and covariates were grouped by urban morphology, land use, traffic and meteorology. Winter PNC values were about twice the summer ones. PNC recorded in the university area were significantly lower than those observed in the external routes. GAMs showed a rather satisfactory result in order to capture the spatial variability, in accordance with those of other previous studies: variances were equal to 71.1, 79.7 and 84%, respectively, for winter, summer and the overall period.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Lidiane de Oliveira Lemos ◽  
Antonio Carlos Oscar Júnior ◽  
Francisco Mendonça

This study aims to evaluate the thermal field of the central business district (CBD) of Rio de Janeiro during summer from land surface temperature (LST) and the thermal characteristics of the urban canopy layer (UCL) of the urban canyon in Avenida Rio Branco. In order to conduct this evaluation, two methods were employed: (1) TIRS Landsat-8 sensor for data selection and processing (latest generation, 2011–2020); (2) a field survey using nine sampling points—seven along two mobile transects, one fixed point, and one vertical measurement point, which required the use of an RPA (remotely piloted aircraft). Three categories of analysis were established for the field survey based on the prevailing synoptic situations: stability, instability, and post-instability. The CBD is characterized by extensive areas with surface heat islands, in which temperatures were higher than 38.9 °C; the areas with milder LSTs were Campo do Santana, Avenida Rio Branco, and one of the mixed-use zones (Praça Mauá). With respect to Rio Branco Avenue, the LST niches of lowest elevation were derived through building shadowing; however, due to the nature of the data, the orbital data diverged from the observation data of the 10 field-study days. In situ data revealed that the characteristics urban morphology of Avenida Rio Branco, by contrast with the LST result, is susceptible to the formation of atmospheric heat islands, presenting heat islands of very strong magnitude (over 6.1 °C) in atmospheric stability, strong magnitude (4.1–6.0 °C) in atmospheric instability, and moderate magnitude (2.1–4.0 °C) in post-atmospheric instability. Despite the synoptic situation, thermal cores were concentrated at 1 p.m. The intersection between Avenida Rio Branco, Rua do Ouvidor, and Praça Mauá stored most of the solar energy received during the day due to the greater sky obstruction caused by the verticalization. Finally, vertical analysis demonstrated the formation of a thermal inversion on the night of the highest mean air temperature (29.5 °C), probably due to the roughness and number of buildings in the urban canyon.

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