Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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Published By Springer-Verlag

1433-9285, 0933-7954

I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra ◽  
Thomas Astell-Burt ◽  
Dylan P. Cliff ◽  
Stewart A. Vella ◽  
Xiaoqi Feng

Nicole G. Hammond ◽  
Børge Sivertsen ◽  
Jens Christoffer Skogen ◽  
Simon Øverland ◽  
Ian Colman

Gillian M. Maher ◽  
Ali S. Khashan ◽  
Fergus P. McCarthy

Abstract Purpose To examine the association between mode of delivery (in particular caesarean section) and behavioural outcomes in offspring at six time-points between age 3 and 17 years. Methods Similar to previous work examining the association between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in offspring at age 7, we used maternal-reported data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data on mode of delivery were collected when children were 9 months and categorised as spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, induced vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section, planned caesarean section and caesarean section after induction of labor. Data on behavioural outcomes were collected at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14 and 17 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Crude and adjusted logistic regression examined mode of delivery–behavioural difficulties relationship, using validated SDQ cut-off points (total SDQ ≥ 17, emotional ≥ 5, conduct ≥ 4, hyperactivity ≥ 7, peer problems ≥ 4 and prosocial behaviour ≤ 4). Multilevel models with linear splines examined the association between mode of delivery and repeated measures of SDQ. Results There were 18,213 singleton mother–child pairs included at baseline, 13,600 at age 3; 13,831 at age 5; 12,687 at age 7; 11,055 at age 11; 10,745 at age 14 and 8839 at age 17. Adjusted logistic regression suggested few associations between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes at ages 3, 5, 11, 14 and 17 years using validated SDQ cut-off points. After correction for multiple testing, only the protective association between planned caesarean section-Conduct difficulties at age 5 years (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.85) and positive association between caesarean section after induction-Emotional difficulties at age 11 years (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19, 2.07) remained statistically significant. Multilevel modelling suggested mean SDQ scores were similar in each mode of delivery group at each time point. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that mode of delivery is unlikely to have a major impact on behavioural outcomes.

Alexander Christopher Ryan Burnett ◽  
Q. Wong ◽  
D. Rheinberger ◽  
S. Zeritis ◽  
L. McGillivray ◽  

Beate Muschalla ◽  
Stefanie Baron ◽  
Theresa Klevers

Abstract Purpose Rehabilitation professionals are faced with judging and describing the social-medicine status of their patients. Rehabilitation professionals must know the core concepts of acute unfitness for work, psychological capacities, and long-term work capacity. Acquiring and applying this knowledge, requires training. The research question is if and to what extent medical professionals and students’ knowledge changes after social medicine training. Methods This quasi-experimental study was carried out in the real-life context of social medicine training. Psychology students (n = 42), physicians/psychotherapists (i.e. state-licensed health professionals) (n = 44) and medical assistant professionals (n = 29) were trained. Their social medicine knowledge was measured before and after training by a 10-min expert-approved and content valid knowledge questionnaire. Three free-text questions had to be answered on the essential aspects of present and prognostic work ability and psychological capacities. Answers were rated for correctness by two experts. Paired t tests and variance analysis have been calculated for group comparisons. Results All groups improved their social medicine knowledge from the pre- to the post-test. The students started with the lowest level of knowledge in the pre-test. After training, 69% of the physicians/psychotherapists and 56.8% of the medical assistant professionals, but only 7% of the students, obtained maximum scores for naming psychological capacities. Conclusions Social medicine knowledge increased after a training course consisting of eight lessons. The increase was greater for medical assistant professionals and physicians/psychotherapists than for students. Social medicine training must be adjusted to the trainee groups’ knowledge levels.

Michelle Degli Esposti ◽  
Hisham Ziauddeen ◽  
Lucy Bowes ◽  
Aaron Reeves ◽  
Adam M. Chekroud ◽  

Abstract Purpose It is unclear how hospitals are responding to the mental health needs of the population in England, against a backdrop of diminishing resources. We aimed to document patterns in hospital activity by psychiatric disorder and how these have changed over the last 22 years. Methods In this observational time series analysis, we used routinely collected data on all NHS hospitals in England from 1998/99 to 2019/20. Trends in hospital admissions and bed days for psychiatric disorders were smoothed using negative binomial regression models with year as the exposure and rates (per 1000 person-years) as the outcome. When linear trends were not appropriate, we fitted segmented negative binomial regression models with one change-point. We stratified by gender and age group [children (0–14 years); adults (15 years +)]. Results Hospital admission rates and bed days for all psychiatric disorders decreased by 28.4 and 38.3%, respectively. Trends were not uniform across psychiatric disorders or age groups. Admission rates mainly decreased over time, except for anxiety and eating disorders which doubled over the 22-year period, significantly increasing by 2.9% (AAPC = 2.88; 95% CI: 2.61–3.16; p < 0.001) and 3.4% (AAPC = 3.44; 95% CI: 3.04–3.85; p < 0.001) each year. Inpatient hospital activity among children showed more increasing and pronounced trends than adults, including an increase of 212.9% for depression, despite a 63.8% reduction for adults with depression during the same period. Conclusion In the last 22 years, there have been overall reductions in hospital activity for psychiatric disorders. However, some disorders showed pronounced increases, pointing to areas of growing need for inpatient psychiatric care, especially among children.

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