microstructural properties
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2022 ◽  
Vol 320 ◽  
pp. 126190
Keke Sun ◽  
Dongxing Xuan ◽  
Jingjing Li ◽  
Guangxiang Ji ◽  
Chi-Sun Poon ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 551
Zdeněk Pitrmuc ◽  
Jan Šimota ◽  
Libor Beránek ◽  
Petr Mikeš ◽  
Vladislav Andronov ◽  

This paper aims at an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of mechanical and microstructural properties of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (W. Nr. 1.4404, CL20ES) produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The experiment in its first part includes an extensive study of the anisotropy of mechanical and microstructural properties in relation to the built orientation and the direction of loading, which showed significant differences in tensile properties among samples. The second part of the experiment is devoted to the influence of the process parameter focus level (FL) on mechanical properties, where a 48% increase in notched toughness was recorded when the level of laser focus was identical to the level of melting. The FL parameter is not normally considered a process parameter; however, it can be intentionally changed in the service settings of the machine or by incorrect machine repair and maintenance. Evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties was performed using the tensile test, Charpy impact test, Brinell hardness measurement, microhardness matrix measurement, porosity analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy. Across the whole spectrum of samples, performed analysis confirmed the high quality of LPBF additive manufactured material, which can be compared with conventionally produced material. A very low level of porosity in the range of 0.036 to 0.103% was found. Microstructural investigation of solution annealed (1070 °C) tensile test samples showed an outstanding tendency to recrystallization, grain polygonization, annealing twins formation, and even distribution of carbides in solid solution.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 198
Yadira Zambrano ◽  
Ingrid Contardo ◽  
María Carolina Moreno ◽  
Pedro Bouchon

Extrusion can lead to an expanded product or to a slightly expanded pellet, known as a third-generation (3G) snack. In this case, expansion occurs subsequently, in an independent thermal device (e.g., oven), out of the extruded pellet. During both processes, several structural changes occur which are linked to processing conditions, including cooking temperature, screw speed, formulation, and initial moisture content. However, a clear relationship between processing variables and the structure of pellets and expanded products has not yet been identified. Accordingly, this work aimed to study the effect of extrusion temperature (110, 135, and 150 °C) and moisture content (27, 29, and 31%) in rice-flour pellets and their microwave expansion, through a microstructural approach using micro-CT. The results showed that the lowest moisture content (27%) and the highest extrusion temperature (150 °C) led to the highest pellet volume and the highest wall thickness, which in turn led to the highest expansion after microwave heating (50 s, 800 W). Interestingly, no significant differences were observed when analyzing the ratio between the volume of the expanded products and the volume of the pellet (~2.4) when using the different processing conditions.

Franco Emanuel Vasile ◽  
Susana Simal ◽  
Carmen Rosselló ◽  
Valeria Soledad Eim

AbstractThis work explores the use of ultrasound (US) as a means of intensifying the impregnation of apple cubes with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). The effect of different US power densities (90 and 200 WL−1) and treatment times (5, 10, and 15 min) was evaluated, on vitamin load, vitamin stability, and physicochemical and microstructural properties of the fruit matrix. The US enhanced the impregnation producing high cyanocobalamin content products (0.12–0.19 mg vitamin/g db.). Vitamin losses in the sonication medium due to US application were not significant. Impregnated samples exhibited higher moisture and lower soluble solids with respect to the untreated fruit. Changes in chromatic coordinates were well correlated to vitamin uptake. Only at the highest treatment intensities (200 WL−1, 10, and 15 min) was a marked softening observed, which agreed with the microstructural changes observed in fruit tissues. Results permit US-assisted impregnation to be considered a promising technology in the preparation of vitamin B12 fortified apple cubes.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 272
Pablo Sánchez-Cid ◽  
Mercedes Jiménez-Rosado ◽  
José Fernando Rubio-Valle ◽  
Alberto Romero ◽  
Francisco J. Ostos ◽  

Hydrogels are considered good biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration. In this sense, collagen is the most used raw material to develop hydrogels, due to its high biocompatibility. However, its low mechanical resistance, thermal stability and pH instability have generated the need to look for alternatives to its use. In this sense, the combination of collagen with another raw material (i.e., polysaccharides) can improve the final properties of hydrogels. For this reason, the main objective of this work was the development of hydrogels based on collagen and chitosan. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the hydrogels formed with different ratios of collagen/chitosan (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100) were evaluated after being processed by two variants of a protocol consisting in two stages: a pH change towards pH 7 and a temperature drop towards 4 °C. The main results showed that depending on the protocol, the physicochemical and microstructural properties of the hybrid hydrogels were similar to the unitary system depending on the stage carried out in first place, obtaining FTIR peaks with similar intensity or a more porous structure when chitosan was first gelled, instead of collagen. As a conclusion, the synergy between collagen and chitosan improved the properties of the hydrogels, showing good thermomechanical properties and cell viability to be used as potential biomaterials for Tissue Engineering.

2022 ◽  
Ji E. Park ◽  
Michael Oja ◽  
Robert Tryon ◽  
Animesh Dey ◽  
Derrick Lamm

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Mahmoud Ziada ◽  
Yosra Tammam ◽  
Savaş Erdem ◽  
Roberto Alonso González Lezcano

Unlike conventional concrete materials, Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) use a micromechanics-based design theory in the material design process. Recently, the use of nanoparticles in various concretes and mortars has increased. This study used nanocalcite to investigate the mechanical, microstructural fractal analysis of environmentally friendly nanocalcite-doped ECC (NCa-ECC). This paper investigated the effects of nanocalcite (NCa) with different contents (0.5, 1, and 1.5% by mass of binder) on the mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECC). For this purpose, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), and flexural strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the ECC series. In addition, SEM analyses were carried out to investigate the microstructural properties of the ECC series. The content of nanocalcite improved the mechanical and microstructural properties of the nanocalcite-modified ECC series. In addition, the 1 NCa series (1% nanocalcite modified to the mass of the binder) had the best performance among the series used in this study.

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