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Author(s):  
Slavomir Krajnak ◽  
Jörg Jäkel ◽  
Katharina Anić ◽  
Roxana Schwab ◽  
Marcus Schmidt ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Integrins may be involved in the metastatic spread of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) which determines the therapeutical approach and prognosis. We investigated the integrin expression in primary tumor and metastases of advanced HGSOC. Methods The expression of integrin α2, α4, α5, α6, and β1 was assessed by immunostaining in tumor samples of the ovary, omentum, and peritoneum of each patient. Differences in integrin expression among tumor localizations and their association with clinicopathological parameters were examined by Fisher’s exact test. The impact of integrin expression on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was examined by Cox regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses. Results Hundred and thirteen tumor samples of 40 HGSOC patients were examined. The expression of the integrins did not differ between the three tumor localizations (all p values > 0.05) with the exception of high expression of integrin α4 in primary tumor and omentum (52.5% versus 47.5%, p = 0.008) and primary tumor and peritoneum (52.5% versus 47.5%, p = 0.050). High expression of integrin α4 in peritoneum was associated with poorer PFS (HR 2.02 95% CI 1.01–4.05, p = 0.047), younger age (p = 0.047), and death (p = 0.046). Median PFS in patients with high expression of integrin α4 was 13.00 months, whereas median PFS in patients without high expression of integrin α4 was 21.00 months (p = 0.040). Expression of other integrins did not correlate with PFS or OS. Conclusion Expression of integrin α4 may be altered during the metastatic spread of HGSOC and affect prognosis, whereas expression of integrin α2, α5, α6, and β1 did not reveal any prognostic value.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 5-11
Author(s):  
Gonzalo Segrelles-Calvo ◽  
Estefanía Llopis-Pastor ◽  
Glauber Ribeiro de Sousa Araújo ◽  
Inés Escribano ◽  
Esther Antón ◽  
...  

Introduction: The study aimed to analyse the clinical response and short-term outcomes with the use of high-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT), non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) with bilevel positive airway pressure, or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in severe COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted an observational, prospective, single-center study, approved by Ethics Committee of “Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Fundación Jiménez Díaz” (EO102-20-HRJC). We included a total of 130 patients ≥18 years-old, with proved SARS-CoV-2 infection and secondary Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) that required treatment with Non-invasive Respiratory Support (NIRS). We collected data about population demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and evolution during the incoming. A baseline of patients treated with HFO, CPAP and NIMV were compared with one-way ANOVA test, while categorical variables were expressed as numbers and percentages and were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test when appropriate. Results: The cohort was distributed as follows: CPAP 54.6% (n = 71), NIMV 30% (n = 39), HFO 15.4% (n = 20). There were no differences between NIRS subgroups regarding age, comorbidity, or functional status. At the beginning of NIRS treatment, PaO2/FiO2 value was 149.3 ± 69.7. After 24 hours, PaO2/FiO2 was significantly higher in the CPAP group (CPAP vs NIMV, p-value = 0.0042; CPAP vs HFO, p-value = 0.000169). The overall ICU admission evaded rate was 69.1% and TF rate was 43.8%, without differences between the three therapies (p-value = 0.281). The mortality rate was 37.2%, without significant differences between subgroups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that CPAP versus treatment with NIMV or HFO improves PaO2/FiO2 rate in severe ARF patients, significantly reducing ICU admission. No differences were observed in mortality or therapeutic failure.


PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12305
Author(s):  
Meg D. Sorhus ◽  
Amanda Corr ◽  
Xiaocun Sun ◽  
Daniel A. Ward

Purpose To assess the effectiveness of postoperative administration of oral antibiotics at reducing the incidence of endophthalmitis following phacoemulsification cataract extraction in dogs. Methods Medical records of the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine were reviewed for cases having undergone phacoemulsification and divided according to whether or not they had received oral antibiotics postoperatively. Records were then evaluated for a diagnosis of endophthalmitis and incidence rates between the group receiving postoperative oral antibiotics and the group not receiving postoperative oral antibiotics were compared. Results A total of 215 patients (368 eyes) were identified by the search. One-hundred twelve patients (197 eyes) were treated with oral antibiotics postoperatively. One-hundred and three patients (171 eyes) were not treated with oral antibiotics postoperatively. Three cases of endophthalmitis were identified, with one in the antibiotic-treated group and two in the non-antibiotic treated group (P > 0.05, Fisher’s exact test). Conclusions The overall incidence of endophthalmitis at the University of Tennessee from 1997–2010 was 0.82%. The rate of post-phacoemulsification endophthalmitis was unaffected by the postoperative administration of oral antibiotics.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bin Wu ◽  
Xiaoyong Yuan ◽  
Song Chen

Abstract Background To compare the accuracy of low-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (LFUBM) and 14-MHz ultrasonography with tissue harmonic imaging (14-MHz + THI) in the assessment of posterior capsule (PC) integrity in patients with traumatic cataracts (TCs). Methods From January 2019 to October 2020, 51 patients (51 eyes) with TCs who were scheduled for cataract extraction and for whom the PC of the lens could not be observed by the slit lamp visited Tianjin Eye Hospital, including 47 patients (47 eyes) with a penetrating injury of the eyeball and 4 patients (4 eyes) with a blunt injury of the eyeball. All eyes underwent LFUBM and 14-MHz + THI examinations before cataract extraction to determine the integrity of the PC. The integrity of the PC observed in surgery was the actual findings, and the consistency between the 2 methods was assessed in terms of the preoperative examination and intraoperative findings. Fisher’s exact test was used for consistency analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Thirty-two eyes with ruptured PCs and 19 eyes with intact PCs were actual findings in surgery. Thirty eyes with ruptured PCs and 21 eyes with intact PCs were examined by LFUBM. Thirty-two eyes with ruptured PCs and 19 eyes with intact PCs were examined by 14-MHz + THI. There were no significant differences between the 2 methods and the intraoperative findings (P = 0.293 LFUBM, P = 0.623 14-MHz + THI). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of LFUBM and 14-MHz + THI were 91 and 94%, 95 and 89%, 97 and 94%, 86 and 89% and 92 and 92%, respectively. Conclusions Both LFUBM and 14-MHz + THI were proved to have high levels sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing the status of the PC in TC and they can be used as accurate diagnostic tool in these cases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 13-20
Author(s):  
E. V. Vaneeva ◽  
V. A. Rosin ◽  
D. A. Diakonov ◽  
A. S. Luchinin ◽  
S. V. Samarina ◽  
...  

Aim. To evaluate the prognostic value of pAKT1 expression by tumor cells in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Materials and methods. The study included 90 patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), who were treated at the clinic of Kirov Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion from 2014 to 2017 and received standard first-line polychemotherapy according to the R-CHOP regimen. Using immunohistochemical and morphometric methods, the relative number of tumor cells expressing pAKT1 was determined. Using the two-sided Fisher’s exact test, the relationship of different levels of marker expression with clinical and laboratory parameters of patients and long-term treatment results was analyzed. The impact of pAKT1 on the risk of an adverse event was assessed using the Cox regression analysis.Results. Overexpression of pAKT1 is associated with unfavorable clinical characteristics of patients with DLBCL, excessive expression of the BCL2 and c-Myc oncoproteins, as well as with low rates of overall and progressive survival. Overexpression of pAKT1 is an independent prognostic factor and statistically significantly affects the risk of an adverse outcome in DLBCL.Conclusion. The degree of pAKT1 expression is an informative criterion that allows to predict the course of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. It is advisable to use the indicated marker when stratifying patients into risk groups.


Author(s):  
Nawal Merjaneh ◽  
Jennifer Young ◽  
Avani Mangoli ◽  
Mallery Olsen ◽  
Bhuvana Setty ◽  
...  

Background: Maintaining dose-dense, interval-compressed chemotherapy improves survival in Ewing sarcoma patients but is limited by myelosuppression. Romiplostim is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist that may be useful in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT). Methods: Patients aged between 3 and 33 years with Ewing sarcoma from 2010-2020 were reviewed. CIT was defined as a failure to achieve 75,000 platelets per microliter by day 21 after the start of any chemotherapy cycle. Fisher exact test was used for univariate analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the association between continuous variables. Results: 27 out of 42 patients (64%) developed isolated CIT, delaying one to four chemotherapy cycles per patient. CIT occurred during consolidation therapy in 24/27(88.9%) and with ifosfamide/etoposide cycles in 24/27 (88.9%). Univariate analysis failed to identify risk factors for CIT. The use of radiation approached significant (p value=0.056). Ten patients received romiplostim. The median starting dose was 3 (range 1-5) mcg/kg. Doses were escalated weekly by 1-2 mcg/kg to 4-10 mcg/kg and continued throughout chemotherapy. A higher romiplostim dose was associated with a higher change in average platelet counts from baseline r= 0.73 (p=0.04). No romiplostim-related adverse events were identified aside from mild headache. Conclusions: CIT is the primary reason for the inability to maintain treatment intensity in Ewing sarcoma. The concurrent use of romiplostim with chemotherapy is safe and feasible, and efficacy was associated with higher romiplostim doses.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258916
Author(s):  
Bienvenida Austria ◽  
Rehana Haque ◽  
Sukriti Mittal ◽  
Jamie Scott ◽  
Aninditha Vengassery ◽  
...  

Objectives Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of antipsychotic exposure and are disproportionally affected by higher mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our goal was to determine whether concurrent antipsychotic medication use was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality in older patients with preexisting behavioral health problems. We also report on findings from post-COVID follow-ups. Design Retrospective observational study. Participants Outpatients at a geriatric psychiatric clinic in New York City. Measurements Demographic and clinical data including medication, diagnosis and Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) scales on outpatients who had COVID-19 between February 28th and October 1st 2020 were extracted from the electronic health records (EHR) from the hospital. Results A total of 56 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 (mean age 76 years; median age 75 years) and 13 (23.2%) died. We found an increased mortality risk for patients who were prescribed at least one antipsychotic medication at the time of COVID-19 infection (Fisher’s exact test P = 0.009, OR = 11.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4–96.0). This result remains significant after adjusting for age, gender, housing context and dementia (Logistic regression P = 0.035, Beta = 2.4). Furthermore, we found that most patients who survived COVID-19 (88.4%) recovered to pre-COVID baseline in terms of psychiatric symptoms. Comparison of pre- and post-COVID assessments of CGI-S for 33 patients who recovered from COVID-19 were not significantly different. Conclusion We observed a higher COVID-19 mortality associated with concurrent antipsychotics use in older patients receiving behavioral health services. The majority of patients in our geriatric clinic who recovered from COVID-19 appeared to return to their pre-COVID psychiatric function. More precise estimates of the risk associated with antipsychotic treatment in older patients with COVID-19 and other underlying factors will come from larger datasets and meta-analyses.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guixiang Liao ◽  
Yuting Qian ◽  
Sumbal Arooj ◽  
Zhihong Zhao ◽  
Maosheng Yan ◽  
...  

BackgroundRadiation therapy (RT) is the mainstay of brain metastases (BMs), and anti-PD-1 blockade has led to intracranial responses in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with BMs.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding anti-PD-1 blockade to RT in the management of NSCLC patients with BM in terms of survival outcome.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 70 NSCLC patients with BMs who were treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) between January 2016 and January 2021. Of the 70 patients, 29 additionally received anti-PD-1 therapy within 30 days of WBRT initiation. Baseline characteristics of the patients and efficacy outcomes such as progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were statistically compared using SPSS v26. Results were obtained using the Chi-square test/Fisher exact test, t-test, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression survival analyses.ResultsThe median survival for the entire cohort was 24 months (95% CI, 19.5–28.5). The median survival times for WBRT alone and WBRT plus anti-PD-1 therapy cohorts were 20 months (95% CI, 11.6–28.3) and 27 months (95% CI, 19.5–28.5), respectively (p=0.035). There was no statistical difference in PFS for the treatment cohorts (median PFS for WBRT alone: 7 months vs. 12 months for WBRT plus anti-PD-1, p=0.247). In EGFR wild-type subgroup (n=31), both PFS (p=0.037) and OS (p=0.012) were significantly improved. Only the treatment group (WBRT plus anti-PD-1) was a significant predictor of OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (p=0.040). There were no significant differences in adverse events among the treatment groups.ConclusionsNSCLC patients with BM receiving additional anti-PD-1 therapy may derive better OS than WBRT alone without any increase in adverse events. Prospective well-designed studies are warranted to validate and elucidate the additive effects of the two modalities in this group of patients.


Crime Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
William A. Chernoff

Abstract Objective The opportunity for web camera theft increased globally as institutions of higher education transitioned to remote learning during COVID-19. Given the thousands of cameras currently installed in classrooms, many with little protection, the present study tests the effectiveness of anti-theft signage for preventing camera theft. Methods Examined web camera theft at a southern, public university located in the United States of America by randomly assigning N = 104 classrooms to receive either anti-theft signage or no signage. Camera theft was analyzed using Blaker’s exact test. Results Classrooms not receiving anti-theft signage (control) were 3.42 times more likely to exhibit web camera theft than classrooms receiving anti-theft signage (medium effect size). Conclusions Using classrooms as the unit of analysis presents new opportunities for not only future crime prevention experiments, but also improving campus safety and security. Also, preventing web camera theft on campus is both fiscally and socially responsible, saving money and ensuring inclusivity for remote learners.


Author(s):  
Cledinaldo Lira Junior ◽  
Diego Henrique Pires Gonçalves ◽  
Kamilly de Lourdes Ramalho Frazão ◽  
Sandra Aparecida Marinho ◽  
Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves De Carvalho ◽  
...  

Aims: To evaluate the mandibular bone cortical of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis on panoramic radiograph, through radiomorfometric indices. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Diagnostic Imaging of the Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Campus VIII, in the city of Araruna, PB, between January and December of 2015. Methodology: Panoramic radiographs of sixteen patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and 32 controls, organized by gender and age, composed the sample. The mandibular panoramic index, gonial index, antegonial index and mental index were evaluated. Pearson's Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used to statistical analysis with a level of significance of 5.0%. Results: Mucopolysaccharidosis patients were mostly female (62.5%), with a mean age of 12.31 + 7.16 years, MPS VI (50.0%) being the most prevalent. Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis had higher values in the gonial (1.86+0.48), the antegonical (4.36+1.24) and the mental (5.24+1.21). However, only the antegoniac index presented a significant difference (P=0.047). Conclusion: The antegoniac index was higher in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and the other radiomorphometric measures were similar to those observed in the control group. Apparently, mucopolysaccharidosis is not related to decreased bone to mandibular quality.


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