cardiovascular disease risk
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Suzanne E. Gilbey ◽  
Christopher M. Reid ◽  
Rachel R. Huxley ◽  
Mario J. Soares ◽  
Yun Zhao ◽  

It is well reported that individuals spend up to 90% of their daily time indoors, with between 60% to 90% of this time being spent in the home. Using a cross-sectional study design in a population of 111 healthy adults (mean age: 52.3 ± 9.9 years; 65% women), we investigated the association between exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor residential environments and measures of central arterial stiffness, known to be related to cardiovascular risk. Indoor VOC concentrations were measured along with ambulatory measures of pulse pressure (cPP), augmentation index (cAIx) and cAIx normalized for heart rate (cAIx75), over a continuous 24-h period. Pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was determined during clinical assessment. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between measures of arterial stiffness and VOCs after adjusting for covariates. Higher 24-h, daytime and night-time cAIx was associated with an interquartile range increase in VOCs. Similar effects were shown with cAIx75. No significant effects were observed between exposure to VOCs and cPP or cfPWV. After stratifying for sex and age (≤50 years; >50 years), effect estimates were observed to be greater and significant for 24-h and daytime cAIx in men, when compared to women. No significant effect differences were seen between age groups with any measure of arterial stiffness. In this study, we demonstrated that residential indoor VOCs exposure was adversely associated with some measures of central arterial stiffness, and effects were different between men and women. Although mechanistic pathways remain unclear, these findings provide a possible link between domestic VOCs exposure and unfavourable impacts on individual-level cardiovascular disease risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Bingman Liu ◽  
Qingqing Yang ◽  
Liangyu Zhao ◽  
Hua Shui ◽  
Xiaoyun Si

Abstract Background To verify that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) may lead to genetic susceptibility to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), the present study was designed to study four SNPs of VDR associated with LVH in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of Han nationality. Methods 120 MHD patients were recruited at Department of Nephrology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University to analyze the expression of genotype, allele and haplotype of Fok I, Bsm I, Apa I and Taq I in blood samples, and to explore their correlation with blood biochemical indexes and ventricular remodeling. Results The results showed that the risks of CVD included gender, dialysis time, heart rate, SBP, glycated hemoglobin, calcium, iPTH and CRP concentration. Moreover, LAD, LVDd, LVDs, IVST and LVMI in B allele of Bsm I increased significantly. Fok I, Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms have no significant difference between MHD with LVH and without LVH. Further study showed that VDR expression level decreased significantly in MHD patients with LVH, and the B allele was positively correlated with VDR Expression. Conclusion VDR Bsm I gene polymorphism may predict cardiovascular disease risk of MDH patients, and provided theoretical basis for early detection and prevention of cardiovascular complications.

Maria Piedade Brandão ◽  
Pedro Sa-Couto ◽  
Gonçalo Gomes ◽  
Pedro Beça ◽  
Juliana Reis

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the CVD risk (CVDRisk) in a sample of workers at a specific workplace: a higher education institution in Portugal. Data were collected using a questionnaire (e.cuidHaMUs.QueST®) with 345 HEI workers from June 2017–June 2018 with a high response rate (93.3%). Two constructs of risks for CVD were considered: (i) metabolic risk and hypertension (CVDRisk1); and (ii) modifiable behavioural risk (CVDRisk2). Logistic regression analyses were used to establish a relationship between risk indexes/constructs (CVDRisk1 and CVDRisk2) and groups of selected variables. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypercholesterolaemia (43.2%). Sixty-eight percent of participants were in the construct CVDRisk1 while almost half of the respondents were in CVDRisk2 (45.2%). The consumption of soft drinks twice a week or more contributed to a significantly increased risk of CVD in CVDRisk1. Lack of regular exercise and lack of daily fruit consumption significantly increased the risk of CVD in CVDRisk2. The challenge to decision makers and the occupational medical community is to incorporate this information into the daily practices of health surveillance with an urgent need for health promotional education campaigns in the workplace.

2022 ◽  
Emil Jørsboe ◽  
Mette Korre Andersen ◽  
Line Skotte ◽  
Frederik Filip Stæger ◽  
Nils Joakim Kaas Færgeman ◽  

Background: The common Arctic specific LDLR p.G137S variant was recently shown to be associated with elevated lipid levels. Motivated by this we aimed to investigate the effect of p.G137S on metabolic health, and cardiovascular disease risk among Greenlanders to quantify its impact on the population. Methods: In a population based Greenlandic cohort (n=5063), we tested for associations between the p.G137S variant and metabolic health traits as well as cardiovascular disease risk based on registry data. Additionally, we explored the variant's impact on plasma NMR measured lipoprotein concentration and composition in another Greenlandic cohort (n=1629). Results: 29.5% of the individuals in the cohort carried at least one copy of the p.G137S risk allele. Furthermore, 25.4% of the heterozygous and 54.7% of the homozygous carriers had high levels (>4.9 mmol/L) of LDL cholesterol, which is above the diagnostic level for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Moreover, p.G137S was associated with an overall atherosclerotic lipid profile, and increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (HR (95% CI), 1.51 (1.18-1.92), P=0.00096), peripheral artery disease (1.69 (1.01-2.82), P=0.046), and coronary operations (1.78 (1.21-2.62), P=0.0035). Conclusions: Due to its high frequency and large effect sizes, p.G137S has a marked population-level impact, increasing the risk of FH and cardiovascular disease for up to 30% of the Greenlandic population. Thus, p.G137S is a potential marker for early intervention in Arctic populations.

Abigail Fraser ◽  
Amanda R. Markovitz ◽  
Eirin B. Haug ◽  
Julie Horn ◽  
Pål Richard Romundstad ◽  

Background Women with a history of obstetric complications are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether they should be specifically targeted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk screening is unknown. Methods and Results We used linked data from the Norwegian HUNT (Trøndelag Health) Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to create a population‐based, prospective cohort of parous women. Using an established CVD risk prediction model (A Norwegian risk model for cardiovascular disease), we predicted 10‐year risk of CVD (nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, and nonfatal or fatal stroke) based on established risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, total and high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, antihypertensive use, and family history of myocardial infarction). Predicted 10‐year CVD risk scores in women aged between 40 and 60 years were consistently higher in those with a history of obstetric complications. For example, when aged 40 years, women with a history of preeclampsia had a 0.06 percentage point higher mean risk score than women with all normotensive deliveries, and when aged 60 years this difference was 0.86. However, the differences in the proportion of women crossing established clinical thresholds for counseling and treatment in women with and without a complication were modest. Conclusions Findings do not support targeting parous women with a history of pregnancy complications for CVD screening. However, pregnancy complications identify women who would benefit from primordial and primary prevention efforts such as encouraging and supporting behavioral changes to reduce CVD risk in later life.

Miguel Angel Alvarez-Mon ◽  
Cesar I. Fernandez-Lazaro ◽  
Maria Llavero-Valero ◽  
Melchor Alvarez-Mon ◽  
Samia Mora ◽  

Background: Media outlets influence social attitudes toward health. Thus, it is important that they share contents which promote healthy habits. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. Analysis of tweets has become a tool for understanding perceptions on health issues. Methods: We investigated tweets posted between January 2009 and December 2019 by 25 major US media outlets about MedDiet and its components as well as the retweets and likes generated. In addition, we measured the sentiment analysis of these tweets and their dissemination. Results: In total, 1608 tweets, 123,363 likes and 48,946 retweets about MedDiet or its components were analyzed. Dairy (inversely weighted in MedDiet scores) accounted for 45.0% of the tweets (723/1608), followed by nuts 19.7% (317/1608). MedDiet, as an overall dietary pattern, generated only 9.8% (157/1608) of the total tweets, while olive oil generated the least number of tweets. Twitter users’ response was quantitatively related to the number of tweets posted by these US media outlets, except for tweets on olive oil and MedDiet. None of the MedDiet components analyzed was more likely to be liked or retweeted than the MedDiet itself. Conclusions: The US media outlets analyzed showed reduced interest in MedDiet as a whole, while Twitter users showed greater interest in the overall dietary pattern than in its particular components.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Anthony W. Baross ◽  
Robert D. Brook ◽  
Anthony D. Kay ◽  
Reuben Howden ◽  
Ebony C. Gaillard ◽  

AbstractDespite the reported association between diurnal variations in ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and elevated cardiovascular disease risk, little is known regarding the effects of isometric resistance training (IRT), a practical BP-lowering intervention, on ambulatory BP and morning BP surge (MBPS). Thus, we investigated whether (i) IRT causes reductions in ambulatory BP and MBPS, in young normotensives, and (ii) if there are any sex differences in these changes. Twenty normotensive individuals (mean 24-h SBP = 121 ± 7, DBP = 67 ± 6 mmHg) undertook 10-weeks of bilateral-leg IRT (4 × 2-min/2-min rest, at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) 3 days/week). Ambulatory BP and MBPS (mean systolic BP (SBP) 2 h after waking minus the lowest sleeping 1 h mean SBP) was measures pre- and post-training. There were significant reductions in 24-h ambulatory SBP in men (− 4 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.0001) and women (− 4 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.0001) following IRT. Significant reductions were also observed in MBPS (− 6 ± 8 mmHg, p = 0.044; − 6 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.019), yet there were no significant differences between men and women in these changes, and 24-h ambulatory diastolic BP remained unchanged. Furthermore, a significant correlation was identified between the magnitude of the change in MBPS and the magnitude of changes in the mean 2-h SBP after waking for both men and women (men, r = 0.89, P = 0.001; women, r = 0.74, P = 0.014). These findings add further support to the idea that IRT, as practical lifestyle intervention, is effective in significantly lowering ambulatory SBP and MBPS and might reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events that often occur in the morning.

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