endoscopic control
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Gunnar Loske ◽  
Johannes Müller ◽  
Wolfgang Schulze ◽  
Burkhard Riefel ◽  
Christian Theodor Müller

Abstract Background Postoperative reflux can compromise anastomotic healing after Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy (ILE). We report on Pre-emptive Active Reflux Drainage (PARD) using a new double-lumen open-pore film drain (dOFD) with negative pressure to protect the anastomosis. Methods To prepare a dOFD, the gastric channel of a triluminal tube (Freka®Trelumina, Fresenius) is coated with a double-layered open-pore film (Suprasorb®CNP drainage film, Lohmann & Rauscher) over 25 cm. The ventilation channel is blocked. The filmcoated segment is placed in the stomach and the intestinal feeding tube in the duodenum. Negative pressure is applied with an electronic vacuum pump (− 125 mmHg, continuous suction) to the gastric channel. Depending on the findings in the endoscopic control, PARD will either be continued or terminated. Results PARD was used in 24 patients with ILE and started intraoperatively. Healing was observed in all the anastomoses. The median duration of PARD was 8 days (range 4–21). In 10 of 24 patients (40%) there were issues with anastomotic healing which we defined as “at-risk anastomosis”. No additional endoscopic procedures or surgical revisions to the anastomoses were required. Conclusions PARD with dOFD contributes to the protection of anastomosis after ILE. Negative pressure applied to the dOFD (a nasogastric tube) enables enteral nutrition to be delivered simultaneously with permanent evacuation and decompression.

2021 ◽  
Chao‐Wen Hsu ◽  
Hsi‐Yuan Chien ◽  
Kung‐Hung Lin ◽  
Yu‑Hsun Chen ◽  
Chu‐Kuang Chou

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 168-179
Kostiantyn Pobielienskyi ◽  
Oleksandr Pakhomov ◽  
Gurina Tetyana Gurina Tetyana ◽  
Liliia Pobielienska ◽  

Cryoablation under endoscopic control is considered to be a promising approach in therapy of benign nodules of thyroid gland (TG). However, pathologically altered TG tissue differs in thermal conductivity and heat capacity from normal one, therefore the model experiments in animals are necessary to determine the cryoablation parameters. In this research, the changes of temperature during cryoablation of experimental rat TG under normal conditions and the one with propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced diffuse hyperplasia (DH) were comparatively assessed. TG was cryo-ablated in rats, previously received a 0.1% PTU solution within 90 days, using a copper cryoprobe, cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. The process was controlled using thermocouples placed at different distances from the iceball. Differences between thermograms of intact TG tissue and the samples with PTU-induced DH were established. To achieve the destruction effect of TG with DH to a depth of more than 1 mm, the need of implementing two freeze-thaw cycles with 120-second cryoprobe exposure was proven.

Rakesh Sihag ◽  
Jitin Bajaj ◽  
Yad Ram Yadav ◽  
Shailendra Ratre ◽  
Ketan Hedaoo ◽  

Abstract Background Surgery for thalamic lesions has been considered challenging due to their deep-seated location. Endoscopic excision of deep-seated brain tumors using tubular retractor has been shown to be safe and effective in prior studies; however, there are limited reports regarding its use for thalamic tumors. We present our experience of endoscope-controlled resection of thalamic tumors using a tubular retractor. Material and Methods This was a prospective observational case series done at a tertiary center specialized for endoscopic neurosurgery during the period from 2010 to 2019. Surgeries were performed under the endoscopic control using a silicon tubular retractor. Lesions were approached transcortically or trans-sulcally. Data were collected for the extent of resection, amount of blood loss, operative time, need for conversion to microscopy, and complications. Results Twenty-one patients of thalamic masses of 14- to 60-year age underwent the surgeries. Pathologies ranged from grade I to IV gliomas. Gross total and near-total resection could be done in 42.85% of cases for each group. The average blood loss and operative time were164.04 ± 83.63 mL and 157.14 ± 28.70 minutes, respectively. Complications included a small brain contusion, two transient hemipareses, and one transient speech deficit. Conclusion Endoscopic excision of thalamic tumors using a tubular retractor was found to be a safe and effective alternative to microscopic resection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Maha Salah Abu Alia ◽  
Abdallah Ahmed Elsawy ◽  
Reda Abdelsamaie Elarabawy ◽  
Hegazy Mohamed Hegazy

Abstract Background Despite the great advancement in therapeutic modalities for esophageal varices, early variceal rebleeding still occurs at high rates leading to an exaggeration of the morbidity and mortality for cirrhotic patients, so meticulous follow-up with optimum prediction and proper preventive measures for early variceal rebleeding are mandatory for increasing survival of those patients. In this respect, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound, and endoscopic criteria of variceal cirrhotic patients as possible risk predictors of early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic control of first variceal bleeding. All included patients were followed up blindly for 12 weeks after endoscopic control of bleeding for ascertainment of first variceal rebleeding. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic criteria were evaluated for all patients at first admission. Results By univariate regression analysis, the statistically significant predictors for early variceal rebleeding were serum albumin, serum bilirubin, prothrombin concentration, Child-Pugh score, platelet count, spleen diameter, ascites, portal vein diameter and velocity, variceal size, variceal location, and red color sign. By using multivariate regression analysis, the most independent significant predictors were Child-Pugh score (sig: 0.001 and OR: 1.661), platelets count (sig: 0.000 and OR: 0.956), portal vein velocity (sig: 0.000 and OR: 0.664), variceal grading (sig: 0.000 and OR: 3.964), and variceal red color sign (sig: 0.000 and OR: 4.964). We used the multivariate regression coefficients for the significant predictors to build up early variceal rebleeding risk (EVRR) score with a significant discriminatory performance (AUC: 0.965 and sig: 0.000). Conclusion Child-Pugh score, platelet count, portal vein velocity, variceal grading, and variceal red color sign are independent risk predictors for early variceal rebleeding after successful control of first variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Our proposed EVRR score could be helpful for the prediction of early variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients after endoscopic control of acute variceal bleeding; however, it should be externally validated in large prospective studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (42) ◽  
pp. 74-80
Ionut Tanase ◽  
Andra Virlan

Abstract We present a case of a 48-year-old male patient who was admitted in our clinic for right nasal obstruction, antero-posterior mucopurulent rhinorrhea, recurrent right micro-epistaxis, hyposmia, cacosmia and right hemicrania. ENT findings and CT scan detects proliferative, polylobate, vascularized tumor formation occupying the right nasal nostril, with muco-purulent secretions lining the tumor formation. The tumor pushes the intersinusal wall to the side and the nasal septum to the contralateral nostril. The apparent origin is at the level of the right middle nasal meatus, but we could not identify a clear limit from the nasopharynx lateral and posterior wall. Resection of the entire tumor formation was performed under endoscopic control. The histopathological outcome revealed undifferentiated carcinoma; immunohistochemical tests were performed and support the myoepithelial origins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (1) ◽  
Andrea Carlin Ronquillo ◽  
Alex Ventura León ◽  
Jorge L Espinoza Ríos ◽  
Eduar A Bravo Paredes ◽  
Paúl Gómez Hinojosa ◽  

Introduction. The operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) and the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) staging systems have been suggested to provide risk of assessment for gastric cancer. Objective. To evaluate the distribution of OLGA and OLGIM staging by age and Helicobacter pylori status. Material and methods. We studied 197 subjects undergoing elective upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence of the H. pylori and histological changes were evaluated using the updated Sydney system. Stages III and IV of OLGA/OLGIM were considered high risk stages. Results. The H. pylori rate was 56.85% (112/197). High-risk OLGA/OLGIM cases were rare: 7/112 (6.5%) cases of OLGA in the H. pylori positive group and 6/85 (7%) in the H. pylori negative group; 5 (4.4%) cases of OLGIM in the H. pylori positive and 6 (7%) in the H. pylori negative. The proportion of advanced stages of OLGA and OLGIM increased with age (p < 0.001). High-risk OLGA was not found before age 40 regardless of the presence of H. pylori, but increased to 16.2%, 10.3%, 17.3% and 40.8% in subjects in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decade of life respectively. The OLGIM high risk showed a similar trend: 0% before 40 years and up to 22.6% in people of 70 years. Conclusions. High-risk OLGA/OLGIM cases are infrequent before age 40 and increase significantly with age. No relation was found with the presence of the H. pylori. According to these protocols, only a fifth of the patients would strictly require endoscopic control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (1) ◽  
Mohamed Mostafa Badr-El-dine ◽  
Mohamed Fawzy Fathalla ◽  
Mohamed Eid ◽  
Ahmed Mohamed Mehanna

Abstract Background The aim of this study is to discuss the detailed surgical steps of the endoscopic-assisted epi-tympanic approach (EAEA) to the round window (RW) as a safe, precise, and reliable approach for cochlear implantation (CI) and also to evaluate possible problems and limitations faced, their management strategies, and how to overcome. Results This study was carried on 40 patients admitted for cochlear implantation (CI). The patients were divided into two equal groups; the first group underwent CI via the endoscopic-assisted epitympanic approach (EAEA), while the second group was a comparison group and underwent CI via the classic posterior tympanotomy. There was a statistical significant difference as regards scalar location of CI electrodes; all EAEA cases were inserted through ST in comparison to 45% of conventional cases. There was no statistical significant difference as regards linear and angular insertion depth between the two groups. The EAEA group needed shorter time to finish the procedure taking from 90 to 195 min, whereas the conventional group consumed longer time ranging from 120 to 185 min; a difference that was found to be statistically significant. No facial nerve injury was reported in the endoscopic approach. Conclusions Endoscope-assisted epitympanic approach (EAEA) is a reliable and safe approach for soft surgery CI. Visualization of the RW and insertion of the electrode under endoscopic control was significantly reliable and successful in all cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 22-34
I. Sokolov ◽  
E.A. Roslavtseva ◽  
V.P. Chernevich ◽  
N.I. Burkina ◽  

Objective. To assess the efficacy of nocturnal hyperalimentation via a low-profile gastrostomy tube for in the improvement of nutritional status and lung function in children with severe cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients and methods. We used nocturnal hyperalimentation with a nutrient solution via a low-profile gastrostomy tube installed under endoscopic control to improve nutritional status of 16 CF children with severe protein-calorie malnutrition aged between 5.5 and 17.5 years. The mean duration of nocturnal hyperalimentation was 1.3 years (range: 7 months–54 months). The nutritional status was evaluated using the WHOAntho Plus software; pulmonary function was evaluated by assessing forced expiratory volume in 1 minute (FEV1) and the number of bronchopulmonary exacerbations per year. Results. All children demonstrated an improvement in their weight and height. After the first 12 months, the mean body weight gain was 5 kg; during the second and third years, children gained 4 kg and nearly 2 kg, respectively. The mean increase in height was 7 cm in the first year, 10 cm in the second year, and 4 cm in the third year. All patients except one had an increase in FEV1 and fewer exacerbations. Complications after gastrostomy were rare and easily addressed. Conclusion. Nocturnal hyperalimentation via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is an effective and safe method of improving nutritional status in children with CF, which delays the progression of bronchopulmonary lesions and lung function reduction, improves the prognosis and quality of life. Key words: cystic fibrosis, children, nutritional status, lung function, enteral nutrition, low-profile gastrostomy tube, nocturnal hyperalimentation

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