abdominal ultrasound
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
U. H. A. Barreto ◽  
A. S .S. Ribeiro ◽  
L. N. Coutinho ◽  
L. A. Moraes ◽  
P. Souza-Júnior ◽  

Abstract Morphophysiological species researches are fundamental, and diagnostic imaging is an excellent technique, already used in wild animals, with great application, not invasive and provide real-time information of each body. Amazonian manatees are on the list of endangered animals classified in the vulnerable category and knowledge of the normal pattern of ultrasound anatomy of organs and tissues is important for the maintenance and well-being of captive specimens contributing to reintroduction actions. The objective of the study was to standardize the examination technique and describe the ultrasound findings of the liver, gallbladder, stomach, urinary bladder and the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal region in Trichechus inunguis, in order to contribute with the anatomical and sonographic knowledge and assist in the diagnosis and prognosis diseases. The study used 18 animals to describe the normal sonographic anatomy in the abdominal cavity of the Amazonian manatee. During abdominal scan, it was possible to visualize the features of the liver, gallbladder, stomach, urinary bladder obtained satisfactory results in this study. Therefore, other structures were not primarily identified by the reduced time, lots of fat and gases in intestines of animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 829
Sebastian Schlaweck ◽  
Claus Juergen Bauer ◽  
Friederike Schmitz ◽  
Peter Brossart ◽  
Tobias A. W. Holderried ◽  

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a rare complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) caused by endothelial dysfunction. Previous definitions and diagnostic criteria for the presence of SOS include bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and weight gain, but histological evaluation is still the only way to prove the diagnosis of SOS. However, biopsy remains an invasive technique and is therefore undesirable in the alloHSCT scenario. Hence, a non-invasive diagnostic strategy is critical. Besides thorough clinical assessment and laboratory values, ultrasound examination remains part of the diagnostic workflow in clinical routine. Previous studies defined sonographic abnormalities, which are associated with the occurrence of SOS, but a standardized protocol to perform reliable abdominal ultrasound has not been finally defined. In this study, we evaluated a multi-parameter protocol including laboratory values as well as ultrasound examination pre- and post-alloHSCT. The application of this protocol was feasible in clinical practice and achieved a high inter- and intra-rater reliability. In our population, no case of SOS was identifiable and, in line with previous studies, no changes known to be associated with SOS were detected by ultrasound examination in our cohort. Additionally, we investigated subgroups of patients partly fulfilling SOS diagnostic criteria analyzing correlations between the fulfilled criteria and aberrances in ultrasound measurements pre- and post-alloHSCT. Although statistical examination may be limited by a small sample size and missing SOS cases, hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia and weight gain showed only a coincidence with selected, enlarged liver dimensions in few patients. This may underline the fact that hepatomegaly occurs as an unspecific finding after alloHSCT. Our protocol, including the ultrasound examination pre- and post-alloHSCT and laboratory parameters, may help to rule out SOS early, but validation in a greater population and different transplantation centers is required to warrant broader appliance. Nevertheless, we aim to contribute to an elaborate and standardized work-flow in peri-alloHSCT patient care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 851
Katharina Weiß ◽  
Wolfgang A. Schmidt ◽  
Andreas Krause ◽  
Valentin S. Schäfer

Patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD) often receive abdominal ultrasound examinations to screen for organ involvement; yet, the spectrum of findings and their clinical relevance are poorly understood. We conducted a retrospective chart review of inpatients from a rheumatological referral centre with an abdominal ultrasound between 1 January2006 and 31 December 2015, examining 1092 SARD patients with a total of 1695 inpatient stays. The mean age was 55.1 years (range: 17–90 years, SD: 15.8), and the mean disease duration was 6.4 years (range: 0.0–52.8 years, SD: 9.1). A total of 87.5% of the patients were female. The most frequent ultrasound findings were hepatic steatosis (in 26.8% of all patients), splenomegaly (15.2% of all patients), pancreatic lipomatosis (14.3% of all patients) and aortic sclerosis (13.9% of all patients). Based on glucocorticoid and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use, we identified cases where immuno-modulatory medication was escalated; there was an association between therapy escalation and the findings of hepatomegaly and pleural effusion (as tested via Fisher’s exact test). In patients with several examinations during the defined time span (n = 318), we found ultrasound findings to change, especially findings of hepatomegaly, pleural effusion and splenomegaly. When justifying decisions regarding the further treatment of a patient in the discharge letter, abdominal ultrasound results were rarely discussed. Abdominal ultrasound rarely yielded disease-specific or treatment-changing results.

2022 ◽  
pp. 104063872110650
Julie B. Engiles ◽  
Francisco A. Uzal ◽  
Mauricio A. Navarro ◽  
Virginia B. Reef ◽  
Susan J. Bender

Phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed in 2 yearling fillies that were presented with a 1-wk history of fever, lethargy, and hypoproteinemia, associated with a previous diagnosis of equine proliferative enteropathy based on clinical signs and PCR assay detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in fecal samples. Abdominal ultrasound revealed enlargement of the stomach and expansion of its submucosal layer with hypoechoic fluid, as well as thickened hypomotile small intestinal segments. Given the poor prognosis and poor response to treatment, both horses were euthanized, one on the day of presentation and the other after 3 wk of intensive medical management including a combination of antimicrobials, analgesics, and intravenous colloids. At autopsy, acute mural gastritis characterized by severe submucosal edema with suppurative inflammation (i.e., phlegmonous gastritis) and necroulcerative enteritis compatible with the necrotizing form of equine proliferative enteropathy were identified in both horses. The gastric inflammation was associated with thrombosis and mixed bacterial populations, including Clostridium perfringens, that were confined to the submucosa without evidence of mucosal involvement; toxin genes compatible with C. perfringens type C were identified in one case. Human phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon, often-fatal pyogenic infection that is often associated with mucosal injury, bacteremia, or immunocompromise. Our finding of this unusual gastric lesion in 2 horses with similar signalment, clinical disease, and spectrum of postmortem lesions suggests a similar etiopathogenesis that possibly involves local, regional, or distant hematogenous origin, and should be considered a potential complication of gastrointestinal mucosal compromise in horses.

Einat Shaked ◽  
Ram Sharoni ◽  
Debra Gershov West ◽  
Eli I Lev

Abstract Background Intravascular leiomyomatosis with intracardiac extension is a rare benign tumor seen exclusively in women, characterized by proliferation of uterine smooth muscle cells through the venous circulation into the inferior vena cava and the right heart chambers. Case summary A 47 years old women with history of previous hysterectomy due to myomatosis, presented with nausea, anorexia and bilateral lower limb swelling over the preceding two months. An outpatient abdominal ultrasound discovered a mass in the Inferior vena cava. Echocardiogram and Computed tomography demonstrated a large intravascular mass extending from the pelvis to the right heart chambers. The tumor was completely removed in a concomitant open-heart surgery and laparotomy. Post operative course was uncomplicated. A month later the patient was feeling well and in good clinical condition. The histological analysis consisted with intravascular leiomyomatosis. Discussion Intracardiac leiomyomatosis is a rare clinical condition which requires high index of suspicion. Multimodality imaging is usually required to establish the preoperative diagnosis, although the final diagnosis is achieved with tissue investigation. Complete surgical resection of the tumor is curative and associated with good long-term prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hassan Atalla ◽  
Ayman Menessy ◽  
Hazem Hakim ◽  
Hideyuki Shiomi ◽  
Yuzo Kodama ◽  

Abstract Background and study aims Unexplained biliary dilatation (UBD) frequently represents a diagnostic dilemma. Linear endosonography (EUS), with its close proximity to the pancreaticobiliary system and the ability for tissue acquisition, could have a role in revealing etiologies of UBD particularly in the context of negative other non-invasive modalities. However, in such patients, the decision for this semi-invasive procedure is usually debatable and often needs justification. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of linear EUS in patients with UBD after negative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and to delineate predictors for EUS ability to detect neoplastic lesions. Patients and methods This was a prospective diagnostic observational study between 2018 and 2021. Included patients with evidence of biliary dilatation on abdominal ultrasound and negative MRCP underwent linear EUS examination. Results were compared to the final diagnosis relied on histopathology after EUS-guided biopsy or surgery for neoplastic lesions, while ERCP, diagnostic EUS criteria plus histopathology for autoimmune pancreatitis, Rosemont criteria for chronic pancreatitis, and/or follow-up for 6 months were the gold standard tests for non-neoplastic etiologies. Logistic regression was conducted to reveal predictors of neoplasm detection by EUS. Results Sixty-one patients (mean age 60 years, 32 females) were enrolled; 13.1% of them were asymptomatic. The final diagnosis was categorized into 29 patients with and 32 without neoplasms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), and accuracy of EUS-positive findings were 98.3%, 100%, 100%, 66.7%, and 98.3%, respectively. Corresponding results for neoplasm identification were 100%, 93.8%, 93.5%, 100%, and 96.7%, respectively. The most common neoplastic etiologies were small pancreatic and ampullary masses. Common bile duct (CBD) diameter > 12.9mm and CA19-9 > 37.1 u/ML were independent predictors for pancreaticobiliary neoplasm at multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion Linear EUS appears to have a high accuracy in detecting etiologies of UBD, with higher sensitivity for small pancreatic, ampullary lesions, and CBD stones. CBD diameter > 12.9 mm and elevated CA19-9 > 37.1 u/ML should raise a concern about the presence of occult pancreaticobiliary neoplasm, and then, EUS may be warranted even in asymptomatic patients.

Tannia Jacqueline Lalaleo Portero ◽  
Carolina Arráiz de Fernández

Introduction: Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis is defined as the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the absence of alcohol consumption, being rare in the pediatric population. However, with the advent of the twentieth century pandemic, such as obesity, this pathology has increased its incidence, as well as others that belong to the metabolic syndrome. Objective: To determine the presence of hepatic steatosis in schoolchildren and adolescents with central obesity. Methods: observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research. The sample was of a census type, represented by 32 schoolchildren and adolescents who met the inclusion criteria, which are: age between 6 and 19 with central obesity - prior signing the informed consent. They underwent measurement of the waist circumference, abdominal ultrasound, measurement of the lipid profile and the determination of the level of physical activity through the application of the Pictorial Questionnaire of Infant Physical Activity. Results: 32 patients were studied, 18 (56.3%) male, adolescents 59.37%. With normal ultrasound (29/32) and with hepatic steatosis (3/32), of which 66.7% are grade II and 33.3% are grade III. Hypertriglyceridemia and borderline triglyceride levels 81.27% and hypercholesterolemia and borderline cholesterol levels 75%. Conclusion: School and adolescent patients with central obesity have borderline lipid profiles or dyslipidemia, in which, despite belonging to the pediatric population, moderate and severe cases of hepatic steatosis are evident. Keywords: fatty liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, obesity.

Z. A. Mamieva ◽  
E. A. Poluektova ◽  
A. L. Kovaleva ◽  
O. S. Shifrin ◽  
V. P. Sobolev ◽  

Aim. A clinical observation to highlight the importance of detailed examination in patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms.Key points. A 28-yo female patient was admitted with complains of left ileal pain, abdominal distention and up to 4-day stool delay. The complaints had long been interpreted as clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome. No significant abnormalities were revealed in outpatient check-up (general and biochemical blood panels, stool test, abdominal ultrasound, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy). Colonoscopy was performed on admission, with diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient had a prompt surgical intervention, repeated courses of polychemotherapy and is currently followed by an oncologist and coloproctologist. No relapse signs have been reported.Conclusion. Patients with the complaints satisfying the Rome Criteria Revision IV for functional gastrointestinal diseases should have a thorough examination as per recommendations of the Russian Gastroenterological Association and Russian Association of Coloproctologists. 

V. T. Ivashkin ◽  
I. V. Maev ◽  
Yu. A. Shelygin ◽  
E. K. Baranskaya ◽  
S. S. Belous ◽  

Aim. Current clinical recommendations accentuate current methods for the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Key points. IBS is a functional bowel disorder manifested with recurrent, at least weekly, abdominal pain with the following attributes (any two leastwise): link to defecation, its frequency or stool shape. The symptoms are expected to persist for at minimum three months in a total six-month follow-up. Similar to other functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, IBS can be diagnosed basing on the patient symptoms compliance with Rome IV criteria, provided the absence of potentially symptom-causative organic GI diseases. Due to challenging differential diagnosis, IBS can be appropriately established per exclusionem, with pre-examination as follows: general and biochemical blood tests; tissue transglutaminase IgA/IgG antibody tests; thyroid hormones test; faecal occult blood test; hydrogen glucose/ lactulose breath test for bacterial overgrowth; stool test for enteric bacterial pathogens and Clostridium difficile A/B toxins; stool calprotectin test; abdominal ultrasound; OGDS, with biopsy as appropriate; colonoscopy with biopsy. The IBS sequence is typically wavelike, with alternating remissions and exacerbations often triggered by psychoemotional stress. Treatment of IBS patients includes dietary and lifestyle adjustments, various-class drug agents prescription and psychotherapeutic measures.Conclusion. Adherence to clinical recommendations can facilitate timely diagnosis and improve medical aid quality in patients with different clinical IBS variants.

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