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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Azam ◽  
R. Ejaz ◽  
S. Qadeer ◽  
S. Irum ◽  
A. Ul-Husna ◽  

Abstract The objective of the current study was to investigate the synergistic impact of α-Tocopherol and α-Linolenic acid (100 µM) on IVM and IVC of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes. Oocytes were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes within two hours after slaughter and brought to laboratory. Buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes were placed randomly in the five experimental groups included; GROUP 1: Maturation media (MM) + 100 µM ALA (control), GROUP 2: MM + 100 µM ALA + 50μM α-Tocopherol, GROUP 3: MM + 100 µM ALA + 100μM α-Tocopherol, GROUP 4: MM + 100 µM ALA + 200 μM α-Tocopherol and GROUP 5: MM + 100 µM ALA + 300 μM α-Tocopherol under an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.5 °C for 22-24 h. Cumulus expansion and nuclear maturation status was determined (Experiment 1). In experiment 2, oocytes were matured as in experiment 1. The matured oocytes were then fertilized in Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium for about 20 h and cultured in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium to determine effect of α-Linolenic acid (100 µM) and α-Tocopherol in IVM medium on IVC of presumptive zygotes. To study the effect of α-Linolenic acid (100 µM) in IVM media and increasing concentration of α-tocopherol in the culture media on early embryo development (Experiment 3), the presumptive zygotes were randomly distributed into the five experimental groups with increasing concentration of α-tocopherol in culture media. Higher percentage of MII stage oocytes in experiment 1(65.2±2.0), embryos at morula stage in experiment 2 (30.4±1.5) and experiment 3 (22.2±2.0) were obtained. However, overall results for cumulus cell expansion, maturation of oocyte to MII stage and subsequent embryo development among treatments remain statistically similar (P > 0.05). Supplementation of α-tocopherol in maturation media having α-Linolenic acid and/or in embryo culture media did not further enhance in vitro maturation of oocyte or embryo production.

Brent Shuman ◽  
Michelle Momany

Septin GTPases form nonpolar heteropolymers that play important roles in cytokinesis and other cellular processes. The ability to form heteropolymers appears to be critical to many septin functions and to have been a major driver of the high conservation of many septin domains. Septins fall into five orthologous groups. Members of Groups 1–4 interact with each other to form heterooligomers and are known as the “core septins.” Representative core septins are present in all fungi and animals so far examined and show positional orthology with monomer location in the heteropolymer conserved within groups. In contrast, members of Group 5 are not part of canonical heteropolymers and appear to interact only transiently, if at all, with core septins. Group 5 septins have a spotty distribution, having been identified in specific fungi, ciliates, chlorophyte algae, and brown algae. In this review we compare the septins from nine well-studied model organisms that span the tree of life (Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Schistosoma mansoni, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe oryzae, Tetrahymena thermophila, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). We focus on classification, evolutionary relationships, conserved motifs, interfaces between monomers, and positional orthology within heteropolymers. Understanding the relationships of septins across kingdoms can give new insight into their functions.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 242
Chieh-Hsin Wu ◽  
Hung-Pei Tsai ◽  
Yu-Feng Su ◽  
Cheng-Yu Tsai ◽  
Ying-Yi Lu ◽  

A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), leading to severe disability and high fatality in survivors, is a devastating disease. Neuro-inflammation, a critical mechanism of cerebral vasospasm and brain injury from SAH, is tightly related to prognoses. Interestingly, studies indicate that 2-[(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-phenol (2-PMAP) crosses the blood–brain barrier easily. Here, we investigated whether the vasodilatory and neuroprotective roles of 2-PMAP were observed in SAH rats. Rats were assigned to three groups: sham, SAH and SAH+2-PMAP. SAHs were induced by a cisterna magna injection. In the SAH+2-PMAP group, 5 mg/kg 2-PMAP was injected into the subarachnoid space before SAH induction. The administration of 2-PMAP markedly ameliorated cerebral vasospasm and decreased endothelial apoptosis 48 h after SAH. Meanwhile, 2-PMAP decreased the severity of neurological impairments and neuronal apoptosis after SAH. Furthermore, 2-PMAP decreased the activation of microglia and astrocytes, expressions of TLR-4 and p-NF-κB, inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and reactive oxygen species. This study is the first to confirm that 2-PMAP has vasodilatory and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of SAH. Taken together, the experimental results indicate that 2-PMAP treatment attenuates neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress and cerebral vasospasm, in addition to ameliorating neurological deficits, and that these attenuating and ameliorating effects are conferred through the TLR-4/NF-κB pathway.

Waleed K. Abdulsahib

High intraocular pressure (IOP) is a recognized risk factor for glaucoma and optic nerve injury, and it is one of the primary causes of vision loss globally. Anabasis articulata (AA) is a desert plant found in Iraq. The extract of AA is used to cure diabetes, fever, eczema, and kidney infections. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant effect of methanol extract of AA on intraocular pressure in the glaucoma rat model. Forty-two rats were allocated into seven groups, each with six animals:: group 1 (normal), group 2 (control), in which animals were induced to have elevated IOP by betamethasone suspension injection, groups 3,4 and 5 for evaluating the effect of 50,100 and 150 mg/kg/day of the tested extract, respectively, and the remaining two groups (group 6 and 7) for evaluating oral acetazolamide and topical timolol 0.5% respectively. Betamethasone was used for the induction. Measure the IOP every 2 days for 2 weeks. The daily dose of AA extract (50 mg/kg/day) for 6 days significantly reduces intraocular pressure (p ? 0.05), from (34.23± 0.58) to (32.83± 1.38) mmHg when compared with the control group. In group 4, IOP decreased significantly from (35.5±1.37) to (31.35±0.40) mmHg (p ? 0.05) after 1 week of treatment. In group 5, the significant (p? 0.001) IOP reduction from (35.66±0.39) to (31.88±0.74) mmHg started on day 6 and continued until the end of the experiment, reaching (24.53±0.53) mmHg (p? 0.001). The antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties of AA make it a promising adjuvant treatment for glaucoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shazia Jamshed ◽  
Shuo-Chen Chien ◽  
Afifa Tanweer ◽  
Rahma-Novita Asdary ◽  
Muhammad Hardhantyo ◽  

Background: The increasing rates of Caesarean section (CS) beyond the WHO standards (10–15%) pose a significant global health concern.Objective: Systematic review and meta-analysis to identify an association between CS history and maternal adverse outcomes for the subsequent pregnancy and delivery among women classified in Robson classification (RC).Search Strategy: PubMed/Medline, EbscoHost, ProQuest, Embase, Web of Science, BIOSIS, MEDLINE, and Russian Science Citation Index databases were searched from 2008 to 2018.Selection Criteria: Based on Robson classification, studies reporting one or more of the 14 adverse maternal outcomes were considered eligible for this review.Data Collection: Study design data, interventions used, CS history, and adverse maternal outcomes were extracted.Main Results: From 4,084 studies, 28 (n = 1,524,695 women) met the inclusion criteria. RC group 5 showed the highest proportion among deliveries followed by RC10, RC7, and RC8 (67.71, 32.27, 0.02, and 0.001%). Among adverse maternal outcomes, hysterectomy had the highest association after preterm delivery OR = 3.39 (95% CI 1.56–7.36), followed by Severe Maternal Outcomes OR = 2.95 (95% CI 1.00–8.67). We identified over one and a half million pregnant women, of whom the majority were found to belong to RC group 5.Conclusions: Previous CS was observed to be associated with adverse maternal outcomes for the subsequent pregnancies. CS rates need to be monitored given the prospective risks which may occur for maternal and child health in subsequent births.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xueju Wang ◽  
Luyao Li ◽  
Pengbo Yuan ◽  
Yangyu Zhao ◽  
Yuan Wei

Abstract Background Unequal placental territory in monochorionic diamniotic twins is a primary cause of selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR), and vascular anastomoses play important role in determining sFGR prognosis. This study investigated differences in placental characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in cases of sFGR with and without thick arterio-arterial anastomosis (AAA). Methods A total of 253 patients diagnosed with sFGR between April 2013 and April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. An AAA greater than 2 mm in diameter was defined as a thick AAA. We compared placental characteristics and pregnancy outcomes between cases of sFGR with and without thick AAA. Results Prevalence of AAA, thick arterio-venous anastomosis (AVA), veno-venous anastomosis (VVA), and thick VVA were significantly higher in the thick AAA group relative to the non-thick AAA group (100.0 vs. 78.5%, P < 0.001; 44.3 vs. 15.4%, P < 0.001; 27.1 vs. 10.8%, P = 0.017, and 24.3 vs. 6.2%, P = 0.004, respectively). The total numbers of AVA and total anastomoses were significantly higher in thick AAA group relative to the non-thick AAA group (5 [1, 14] vs. 3 [1, 15, P = 0.016; and 6 [1, 15] vs. 5 [1, 16], P = 0.022, respectively). The total diameter of AAA, AVA, VVA, and all anastomoses in the thick AAA group was larger than in the non-thick AAA group (3.4 [2.0,7.1] vs. 1.4 [0.0, 3.3], P < 0.001; 6.3 [0.3, 12.0] vs. 2.5 [0.3, 17.8], P < 0.001; 4.2±1.8 vs. 1.9±1.2, P =0.004; and 10.7 [3.2,22.4] vs. 4.4 [0.5, 19.3], P < 0.001, respectively). Growth-restricted fetuses in the thick AAA group exhibited significantly increased birthweight relative to those in thenon-thick AAA group (1570 (530, 2460)g vs. 1230 (610, 2480)g, p = 0.002). Conclusions In the placentas associated with sFGR, thick AAA can co-occur with thick AVA and VVA, and placental angiogenesis may differ significantly based upon whether or not thick AAA is present. The birth weights of growth-restricted fetuses in cases of sFGR with thick AAA are larger than in cases without thick AAA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Min Ji ◽  
Jin-Yan Zhao ◽  
Hua-Feng Wang ◽  
Chong-Wu Wang ◽  

We evaluated the predictive value of the ex-vivo PharmaFlow PM platform in measuring the pharmacological activity of drug combinations consisting of 20 different chemotherapy regimens (20 Tx) administered in 104 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The predicted sensitivities of alternative treatments for each patient were ranked in five 20% categories, from resistant to sensitive (Groups 1–5). The complete remission (CR) rates of the five groups were 0%, 12.5%, 38.5%, 50.0%, and 81.3%, respectively. The heat map showed a good relationship between drug sensitivity with CR (Group 4 + 5 vs. Group 1 + 2+3: 77.5% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.002) and the European Leukemia Net risk group (22.6% vs. 63.6%, p = 0.015). The predicted coincidence rate was 90.9% in Group 1 + 2 and 81.3% in Group 5. According to the recommendations of the PharmaFlow PM platform, the CR rate would have increased by about 16.3% in one cycle. The overall survival (OS) was shorter in patients predicted to be resistant (Group 1 + 2 vs. Group 3 + 4+5, p = 0.086). In multivariable analysis, CR after one cycle was an independent prognostic factor for OS [p = 0.001; 95% CI 0.202 (0.080–0.511)], and ex-vivo chemosensitivity was a potential predictive factor for OS [p = 0.078; 95% CI 0.696 (0.465–1.041)]. To conclude, the PharmaFlow PM platform is a rapid and valuable tool for predicting clinical response and outcomes in AML patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Driss Ousaaid ◽  
Hassan Laaroussi ◽  
Meryem Bakour ◽  
Asmae El Ghouizi ◽  
Naoual El Menyiy ◽  

Oxidative stress is the trigger of several diseases. It is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidants. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the protective property of Rosa canina fruits and apple cider vinegar combined or not against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. The experiment included five groups: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg b.wt), group 2 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt), group 3 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt) and apple vinegar (2 mL/kg b.wt); group 4 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt) and apple vinegar supplemented with Rosa canina fruits extract (300 mg/kg b.wt); group 5 received H2O2 10% (10 mL/kg b.wt) and extract of Rosa canina fruits (300 mg/kg b.wt). The doses were given once daily via a gavage. The antioxidant capacity of apple vinegar and Rosa canina extract was analyzed, and AST, ALT, PAL, urea, and creatinine were determined on day 22 of the experiment. In addition, the kidney and the liver tissues were analyzed. The results showed that H2O2 caused a significant elevation of blood urea, blood creatinine, and transaminases. The histopathology examination revealed that H2O2 caused congestion, hemorrhage, and Bowman’s space enlarged. On the other hand, the results clearly showed that apple vinegar and Rosa canina fruits counterbalance the biochemical and histological changes induced by H2O2. In conclusion, the two natural products studied in this work are effective against the harmful effect of oxidative stress, which explains their use in traditional medicine.

2022 ◽  
Di DI CHEN ◽  
Xi Shen ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Yanping Kuang

Abstract Background: For heterogeneous populations of low-prognosis women, it remains unclear as to how long individuals should continue undergoing ART when attempting to have a baby, as there have been insufficient studies to date tracking the cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) for these women over the entire course of their ART treatment, particularly over extended time periods. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 17,698 women at a tertiary care academic medical center who had begun undergoing IVI/ICSI cycles using a PPOS approach between January 2013 and January 2019. Low-prognosis patients were stratified into four groups based upon POSEIDON criteria, with patients exhibiting normal or high ovarian reserves and response to stimulation (defined as AFC ≥5, >9 oocytes retrieved) being included as controls (group 5). The CLBR within 5 years or 9 FET cycles from the OPU day of the first cycle was the primary endpoint for this study, including all repetitive oocyte retrieval cycles and subsequent FET cycles. Optimistic and conservative approaches were used for the analysis of CLBRs and the depiction of cumulative incidence curves.Results: Under both optimistic and conservative model analyses, patients in group 5 exhibited the highest CLBR within 5 years or 9 FET cycles, followed by POSEIDON group 1, group 3, group 2, and group 4. Upward trends in CLBRs were evident across the five groups with the prolongation of time or an increase in FET cycle counts. Within the first 2 years or 3 FET cycles, the CLBRs rose rapidly, followed by more moderate increases over the following 2-3.5 years or 4-6 cycles, with the patients in group 3 and group 4 exhibiting the most obvious improvements. Patients in all groups reached a CLBR plateau after 3.5 years or 6 FET cycles.Conclusions: All low-prognosis women should undergo ART treatment for a minimum of 2 years or 3 FET cycles, and exhibit better outcomes when extending ART treatment to 3.5 years or 6 FET cycles (particularly for POSEIDON groups 3 and 4), but should consider ceasing further treatment thereafter due to a lack of apparent benefit.

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