Comparison Group
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lucas Foster Skewis ◽  
Ingrid Bretherton ◽  
Shalem Y. Leemaqz ◽  
Jeffrey D. Zajac ◽  
Ada S. Cheung

BackgroundGender affirming hormone therapy (GAHT), whilst considered the standard of care in clinical guidelines for the treatment of many transgender (trans) people is supported by low quality evidence. In this prospective longitudinal controlled study, we aimed to examine the effect of newly commencing GAHT on gender dysphoria and quality of life (QoL) over a 6 month period.MethodsAdult trans (including those with binary and/or non-binary identities) people newly commencing standard full-doses of masculinising (n = 42; 35 = trans masculine, 7 = non-binary) or feminising (n = 35; 33 = trans feminine, 2 = non-binary) GAHT and cisgender participants (n=53 male, n=50 female) were recruited to participate in this longitudinal prospective study. This analysis of gender dysphoria measured by the Gender Preoccupation and Stability Questionnaire and QoL measured by the RAND Short-Form 36 Health survey at baseline, 3 and 6 months after commencement of GAHT was a prespecified secondary outcome. Dysphoria and QoL over time in those starting GAHT compared to cisgender comparison group matched for their presumed sex at birth is reported as the mean difference (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age.ResultsIn trans people initiating masculinising GAHT, there was a decrease in gender dysphoria with adjusted mean difference -6.80 (-8.68, -4.91), p < 0.001, and a clinically significant improvement in emotional well-being [adjusted mean difference 7.48 (1.32, 13.64), p = 0.018] and social functioning [adjusted mean difference 12.50 (2.84, 22.15), p = 0.011] aspects of QoL over the first 6 months of treatment relative to the cisgender female comparison group. No significant differences were observed in other QoL domains. In trans people initiating feminising GAHT, there was a decrease in gender dysphoria [adjusted mean difference -4.22 (-6.21, -2.24), p < 0.001] but no differences in any aspects of QoL were observed.ConclusionsIn the short-term, our findings support the benefit of initiating masculinising or feminising GAHT for gender dysphoria. Masculinising GAHT improves emotional well-being and social functioning within 6 months of treatment. Multidisciplinary input with speech pathology and surgery to support trans people seeking feminisation is likely needed. Further longitudinal studies controlled for other confounders (such as the presence of social supports) contributing to QoL are needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Surani Fernando ◽  
Santosh Tadakamadla ◽  
Jeroen Kroon ◽  
Ratilal Lalloo ◽  
Newell W. Johnson

Abstract Background The burden of childhood dental caries amongst Indigenous Australians is higher than in other Australians. Because of differences in lifestyle and the evolutionary history of the oral microbiota, associated risk indicators may differ. Here, we evaluate associations between caries increment, salivary biomarkers and baseline caries among children aged 5–17 years residing in a remote rural Indigenous community. Methods This study was part of a trial assessing cost-effectiveness of an intervention to prevent dental caries among children. Baseline epidemiology and application of topical caries-preventive measures was conducted in 2015, followed-up in 2016 and 2017. Children who did not consent or failed to attend the prevention visits but did attend for follow-up epidemiology constituted a natural comparison group for evaluating the intervention. Saliva flow, pH, buffering and bacterial loads were measured at all visits. Caries was scored by the International Caries Detection and Assessment system. Outcome was caries increment. Explanatory variables were sex, being in experimental or comparison group, baseline caries, saliva flowrate and buffering, pH, and salivary loads of mutans streptococci (MS), Lactobacilli (LB), and yeast. Chi Square tests compared caries incidence in relation to explanatory variables and Generalised Linear Models explored associations between explanatory and outcome variables. Results Of 408 participants at baseline, only 208 presented at 2-year follow-up. Of caries-free children at baseline, significantly fewer had incipient (p = 0.01) and advanced (p = 0.04) caries after two years. Children in the experimental group experienced fewer tooth surfaces with advanced caries (p = 0.02) than comparison children. Having caries at baseline (p = 0.02) and low salivary flow-rates (p < 0.001) saw a significant increase in advanced caries after two years. Children with high salivary loads of MS (p = 0.03) and LB (p = 0.004) experienced more advanced carious surfaces. Multivariable analysis revealed 58% reduction (p = 0.001) in advanced caries among children with high salivary flow rates. Caries increment was 61% (p = 0.03) more for incipient and 121% (p = 0.007) more for advanced caries among children who harboured higher loads of MS. Conclusion As with other ethnicities, children with low salivary flow and those with high MS had higher incipient and advanced caries increments after two years. Such risk assessments facilitate targeted preventive interventions for such communities. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), No: ACTRN12615000693527: 3 July 2015.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-52
Yudi Guntara ◽  
Indri Sari Utami

This study aimed to implement augmented physics animation integrated crosscutting concept COVID-19 in facilitating student problem-solving skills and disaster preparedness. This study used a quantitative approach. The research design chosen was a pre-experimental design with a posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups. The research was conducted at the Department of Physics Education, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa. All students of the department are the research population. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The number of 35 students entered the experimental group, and 36 students entered the comparison group. The results showed that a) there was no difference in students' mastery of problem-solving skills in the experimental and comparison group. Asymp. Sig indicates a value of 0.187 or > 0.05, so it can be decided that H1 was rejected. b) There was a difference in the level of student COVID-19 disaster preparedness between the experimental and the comparison group. Asymp indicated this. Sig was 0.012 or < 0.05, so it could be decided that H2 was accepted. Therefore, it can be concluded that the implementation of augmented physics animation on the mastery of student problem-solving skills has not yet been seen but can already be seen in facilitating the level of preparedness of students in dealing with the COVID-19 disaster.

V. M. Bensman ◽  
A. G. Baryshev ◽  
S. N. Pyatakov ◽  
K. G. Triandafilov ◽  
V. N. Ponomarev ◽  

Despite the success in treatment, currently 30.0% of patients with diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) still undergo high amputations with a mortality rate of up to 54.0–68.0 %. The causes of high low limb amputations in 28.0 % of patients are infection, and in 46.0 % – arterial insufficiency in the stage of critical limb ischemia.Objective: to improve the results of patients treatment by reducing the number of high amputations of the lower extremities, reducing the occurrence of complications and deaths of the disease.Materials and methods. To study the results of treatment of patients with DFS, they were divided into two comparison groups and two main groups. From 1982 to 2019, the frequency of amputations, mainly at the hip level, was 71.0 % (177 amputations in 248 patients). These patients formed the first comparison group of observations. The second comparison group (1988–1994) included 58.3 % of patients in whom amputations were performed according to more stringent indications (157 amputations in 269 patients). The first main group of observations (1995–2013) included 9.9 % of patients with DFS who were amputated only for wet gangrene, incurable critical limb ischemia, and infection with a systemic inflammatory response (130 amputations out of 1312 patients). In ischemia with preserved blood flow through the deep artery of the thigh, amputation of the lower leg was performed in a sequential-two-flap method with removal of the soleus muscle. Amputations were completed with the imposition of drainage removable muscle-fascial sutures. The second main group (2014) consisted of 11.4 % of patients who underwent amputations only for sepsis or wet gangrene (124 amputations in 1083 patients). The difference between the second main group and the first was the division of the high amputation intervention into 2 stages.Results. Comparison of the treatment results in the main groups and in the comparison groups revealed a 6-fold decrease in the number of high amputations (from 64.6 to 10.69 %) and a significant improvement in the main quality indicators. This concerns a 6-fold decrease in mortality, which was a consequence of the introduction of a two-stage tactic for high amputation treatment of the most severe patients and the limitation of indications for amputation of the hip. Using of removable drainage muscle-fascial sutures decreased postoperative wound complications from 51.9 to 13.0 %, and the number of re-amputations decreased in 17th times.Conclusion. Amputation of the lower extremities for irreversible critical limb ischemia can be performed with a decrease in TcP02 of the stitched stump tissues to no more than 30 mm Hg. Preserving the knee joint improves the possibilities of prosthetics, which allows older diabetics to lead an active life. Methods of performing parallel- or sequential-two-flap high amputation improve the conditions for cutting out racquet-shaped wound flaps, which provides free displacement of the soft tissues of the stump connected by removable drainage sutures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8192
Xiaolong Cheng ◽  
Lawrence Jun Zhang

Writing is regarded as a crucial skill in English language curricula at the secondary and tertiary levels in the Chinese education system. Currently, Chinese teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) often adopt a product approach to teaching EFL writing, in which they emphasize the quality of their students’ written products and show little concern with the writing process. To help L2 learners achieve sustainable development of their writing proficiency, teachers employ a comprehensive approach to correct their students’ language errors as a common practice. However, empirical studies regarding its efficacy on different dimensions of L2 writing are insufficient. This study intended to fill this lacuna in a Chinese EFL context, which investigated the effects of sustained comprehensive written corrective feedback (WCF) on accuracy, complexity, fluency, and content and organization quality of EFL students’ writing. Quasi-experimental in design, it involved a comparison group and a treatment group receiving four sessions of direct comprehensive WCF. Results show that such WCF contributed to writing accuracy and fluency over time. Our textual analysis further reveals that it particularly benefited students’ grammatical accuracy, reducing some rule-based grammatical error types. However, it showed limited effects on complexity, content, or organization of students’ writing. Interestingly, the comparison group did not improve any dimensions of their writing. Possible implications are also discussed.

Taiyo Fukai ◽  
Hidehiko Ichimura ◽  
Keisuke Kawata

AbstractThe Labor Force Survey, a large-scale government statistics, and the causal forest algorithm are used to estimate the group average treatment effect of the COVID-19 on the employment status for each month from January to June 2020. We find that (1) because of the seasonality in employment status at monthly level, whether we use January 2020 as the base month for comparison, as done in most of the studies or whether we use the same month last year as the base comparison group makes a large difference; (2) whether we include those who are absent from work among the employed or not makes a large difference in the measure of the impact of COVID-19 and its changes; (3) if we use the employment measure which does not include those who are absent from work among the employed, 25–30% among the employed are adversely affected and that 10% of the employed experienced more than 10% decline in employment probability in April, 2020; (4) those who are the most affected by the COVID-19 are those who are unemployed or work part-time in the hotel and restaurant industry and service occupations; (5) in addition, younger and female respondents are more affected than are older and male respondents; and (6) we observe no clear differences in the impacts of COVID-19 with respect to living location, education status, and firm size among the most affected.

MD Sultan Ali ◽  
Angela E. Kitali ◽  
John H. Kodi ◽  
Priyanka Alluri ◽  
Thobias Sando

Transit signal priority (TSP) is a strategy that prioritizes the movement of transit vehicles through a signalized intersection to provide better transit travel time reliability and minimize transit delay. Although TSP is primarily intended to improve the operational performance of transit vehicles, it may also have substantial safety benefits. This study explored the potential safety benefits of the TSP strategy deployed at various locations in Florida. An observational before–after full Bayes (FB) approach with a comparison group was adopted to estimate the crash modification factors (CMFs) for total crashes, rear-end crashes, sideswipe crashes, and angle crashes. The analysis was based on 12 corridors equipped with the TSP system and their corresponding 29 comparison corridors without the TSP system. The deployment of TSP was found to reduce total crashes by 7.2% (CMF = 0.928), rear-end crashes by 5.2% (CMF = 0.948), and angle crashes by 21.9% (CMF = 0.781), and these results are statistically significant at a 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI) except for the rear-end crashes. On the other hand, sideswipe crashes increased by 6% (CMF = 1.060) although the increase was not significant at a 95% BCI. Overall, the results indicated that TSP improves safety. The findings of this study may present key considerations for transportation agencies and practitioners when planning future TSP deployments.

A. A. Uksumenko ◽  
M. V. Аntonyuk ◽  
E. E. Мineeva ◽  
A. V. Yurenko ◽  
K. K. Khodosova

Introduction. An important part in the rehabilitation treatment of patients with asthma associated with obesity is the ambulatory-polyclinic stage of rehabilitation that includes drug and physiotherapeutic treatment. Recently, dry carbon dioxide baths (DCDB) are increasingly used.Aim. is to assess the clinical and immunological efficiency of DCDB in the complex rehabilitation treatment of patients with asthma and obesity at the ambulatory-polyclinic stage of rehabilitation.Materials and methods. The study included 60 patients with asthma and obesity admitted to the departments of medical rehabilitation and clinical examination of scientists of the Medical Association of FEB RAS. Patients of the main group (30 subjects) received DCDB and drug therapy. Patients of the comparison group (30 subjects) received only drug therapy. The DCDB procedures were carried out using the “Reabox” device at CO2 concentration of 15-20%, a temperature of 28-30ºC, 10 procedures. The changes in symptoms, ACQ-5 test, and respiratory function were assessed. The parameters of cellular immunity CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), interleukins (IL) IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A in the blood were analyzed.Results. The achievement of asthma control took less time in patients of the main group. The improvement of bronchial patency was evidenced by the positive dynamics of spirometric indices. After DCDB therapy, an increase in suppressive activity of the cellular immunity, a decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-17A were revealed. The TNF-α/IL-10 ratio statistically significantly changed due to the increase in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In the comparison group, the positive dynamics was less pronounced.Conclusion. The use of DCDB increases the clinical and immunological efficiency of the rehabilitation of patients with asthma and obesity at the ambulatory-polyclinic stage. The clinical effect is associated with immunocorrective action, which allows achieving control of the disease in a shorter period of time. 

2021 ◽  
Heba E. Akl ◽  
Amr R. El-Beialy ◽  
Mohamed Abd El-Ghafour ◽  
Amr M. Abouelezz ◽  
Fouad A. El Sharaby

ABSTRACT Objectives To compare the root resorption resulting from miniscrew-supported maxillary posterior dentoalveolar intrusion using two different force magnitudes. Materials and Methods: Adult patients with skeletal open bite, indicated for maxillary posterior dentoalveolar intrusion, were recruited and randomly assigned to the comparison or intervention groups. The comparison group involved applying 200 g of intrusive force per segment, which measured 20 g per root, while this force was 400 g per segment in the intervention group, measuring 40 g per root. Results Twenty participants were included in the final analysis after 2 patients dropped out, 1 in each group, to end up with 10 subjects (200 roots) per group. There was statistically significant root resorption of 0.84 ± 0.96 mm and 0.93 ± 1.00 mm in the comparison and the intervention groups, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions Root resorption inevitably took place in association with orthodontic intrusion. However, increasing the magnitude of the intrusive force did not increase the amount of root resorption, either statistically or clinically.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Magnus Helgesson ◽  
Emma Björkenstam ◽  
Syed Rahman ◽  
Klas Gustafsson ◽  
Heidi Taipale ◽  

Abstract Background The objective of this population-based register study was (1) to investigate the association between young adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and subsequent labour market marginalisation (LMM) in two comparison groups, i.e. matched young adults from the general population without ADHD and unaffected siblings to persons with ADHD and (2) to assess the role of comorbid disorders. Methods This study included all young adults in Sweden, aged 19–29 years, with an incident diagnosis of ADHD 2006–2011 (n = 9718). Crude and multivariate sex-stratified hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured 5 years after the diagnosis of ADHD for the risk of disability pension, long-term sickness absence (SA) (>90 days), long-term unemployment (>180 days) and a combined measure of all three in young adults with ADHD compared to their siblings without ADHD and a matched comparison group. Results In the adjusted analyses young adults with ADHD had a 10-fold higher risk of disability pension (HR = 10.2; CI 9.3–11.2), a nearly three-fold higher risk of long-term SA (HR = 2.7; CI 2.5–2.8) and a 70% higher risk of long-term unemployment (HR = 1.7; CI 1.6–1.8) compared to the matched comparison group. The risk estimates were lower compared to siblings for disability pension (HR = 9.0; CI 6.6–12.3) and long-term SA (HR = 2.5; CI 2.1–3.1) but higher in the long-term unemployed (HR = 1.9; CI 1.6–2.1). Comorbid disorders explained about one-third of the association between ADHD and disability pension, but less regarding SA and long-term unemployment. Conclusions Young adults with ADHD have a high risk for different measures of LMM and comorbidities explain only a small proportion of this relationship.

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