clinical laboratory
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
X. Wu ◽  
G. Zhong ◽  
H. Wang ◽  
J. Zhu

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (2) ◽  
pp. 169-177
Fernando Marques-Garcia ◽  
David Hansoe Heredero Jung ◽  
Sandra Elena Pérez

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp ◽  
Esra Disci ◽  
Rifat Peksoz ◽  
Refik Selim Atamanalp ◽  
Cansu Tatar Atamanalp

Objectives: Ileosigmoid knotting (ISK) is a rare intestinal obstruction form worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate changing trends in ISK. Methods: The Web of Science and PubMed databases were electronically searched to find all publications to evaluate all epidemiological, etiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, therapeutic, and prognostic factors in ISK. Results: Most of the cases were reported from Asian and African countries. Mean age was 43.9 years with a 79.9%/20.1% of male/female ratio. Main symptom period was 48.1 hours, while the most common clinical features were abdominal pain/tenderness (99.1%), distention (88.3%), and obstipation/constipation (58.8%). Abdominal X-ray radiography, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were diagnostic in 8.2%, 96.2%, and 100.0%, respectively, while the total diagnostic accuracy rate was 20.8%. Bowels were gangrenous in 85.6% of the patients. Ileum resection was applied in 14.0% of the cases, while sigmoid colon resection in 7.6%, and both segment resection in 67.1%. The mortality rate was 22.7%, while the morbidity rate was also 22.7%. Conclusion: ISK is a rare disease, but it is still catastrophic despite its two-century recognised past. As an exception, diagnostic convenience arising from CT or MRI looks like the most important change over the last half-century. doi: How to cite this:Atamanalp SS, Disci E, Peksoz R, Atamanalp RS, Tatar Atamanalp C. Ileosigmoid knotting: A review of 923 cases. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 318-324
Ashis Kumar Halder

Background: Bronchiolitis, caused mostly by Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virus is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. The disease is mostly presents with cough runny nose, fever, breathing difficulties and respiratory failure This infection usually affects children up to age of 24 months, with younger infants often more severely affected and is the most prevalent cause of hospitalization in infants under the age of 12 months. The treatment is supportive; therefore, epidemiology, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings can help to ensure appropriate diagnosis and proper treatment.Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional observation study was conducted at Paediatrics department of Sher-E-Bangla Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Barishal, Bangladesh between October 2018 to March 2019To find out the clinico-epidemiological and radiological profile of Bronchiolitis. Children below 24 months of age diagnosed as bronchiolitis were studied.Results:200 children were evaluated, including 150 boys and 50 girls; Infants below 6 months accounted for the highest proportion (60%). All the bronchiolitis patients had cough or cold with respiratory distress. Other symptoms were fever (98.0%), restlessness (63.0%), poor feeding (60%) and fast breathing. On examination lower chest indrawing and rhonchi were found in all cases. Hyperinflation was the most prevalent radiological finding (60%) and more than half (55%) patients had lymphocytosis on CBC.Conclusion:Most children present with typical clinical and radiological feature of bronchiolitis which can help the clinicians to clinically identify this disease more efficiently.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 253-259
Juby Sara Koshy ◽  
Afsheen Raza

The clinical laboratory in today’s world is a rapidly evolving field which faces a constant pressure to produce quick and reliable results. Sigma metric is a new tool which helps to reduce process variability, quantitate the approximate number of analytical errors, and evaluate and guide for better quality control (QC) practices.To analyze sigma metrics of 16 biochemistry analytes using ERBA XL 200 Biochemistry analyzer, interpret parameter performance, compare analyzer performance with other Middle East studies and modify existing QC practices.This study was undertaken at a clinical laboratory for a period of 12 months from January to December 2020 for the following analytes: albumin (ALB), alanine amino transferase (SGPT), aspartate amino transferase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), bilirubin total (BIL T), bilirubin direct (BIL D), calcium (CAL), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose (GLUC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), total protein (PROT), uric acid (UA) and urea. The Coefficient of variance (CV%) and Bias % were calculated from internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assurance scheme (EQAS) records respectively. Total allowable error (TEa) was obtained using guidelines Clinical Laboratories Improvement Act guidelines (CLIA). Sigma metrics was calculated using CV%, Bias% and TEa for the above parameters. It was found that 5 analytes in level 1 and 8 analytes in level 2 had greater than 6 sigma performance indicating world class quality. Cholesterol, glucose (level 1 and 2) and creatinine level 1 showed &#62;4 sigma performance i.e acceptable performance. Urea (both levels) and GGT (level 1) showed &#60;3 sigma and were therefore identified as the problem analytes. Sigma metrics helps to assess analytic methodologies and can serve as an important self assessment tool for quality assurance in the clinical laboratory. Sigma metric evaluation in this study helped to evaluate the quality of several analytes and also categorize them from high performing to problematic analytes, indicating the utility of this tool. In conclusion, parameters showing lesser than 3 sigma need strict monitoring and modification of quality control procedure with change in method if necessary.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Nayara Santos de Oliveira ◽  
Ana Beatriz Feijão de Lima ◽  
Juliana Carvalho Regino de Brito ◽  
Ayane Cristine Alves Sarmento ◽  
Ana Katherine Silveira Gonçalves ◽  

The ovulatory cycle has a significant influence on the microbial composition, according to the action of estrogen and progesterone on the stratified squamous epithelium, due to an increase in epithelial thickness, glycogen deposition, and influence on local immunology. The 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing study demonstrated that healthy women have community state types (CST), classified as; type “L,” with a predominance of Lactobacillus crispatus, type II, with a predominance of Lactobacillus gasseri, type III, where Lactobacillus iners predominates, and type V with a predominance of Lactobacillus jensenii. Type IV does not identify lactobacilli but a heterogeneous population of bacteria. There seems to be a relationship between increased vaginal bacterial diversity and poverty of lactobacilli with the complaining of vaginal dryness. With menopause, there appears to be a reduction in lactobacilli associated with higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lower estrogen levels. The evaluation of Gram-stained vaginal smears in postmenopause women must take into account the clinical-laboratory correlation. We should observe two meanly possibilities, atrophy with few bacterial morphotypes, without inflammatory, infiltrate (atrophy without inflammation), and atrophy with evident inflammatory infiltrate (atrophy with inflammation or atrophic vaginitis). The relationship between the microbiome and postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms seems to be related to the bacterial vaginal population. However, more robust studies are needed to confirm this impression.

Ingo Mrosewski ◽  
Tobias Dähn ◽  
Jörg Hehde ◽  
Elena Kalinowski ◽  
Ilona Lindner ◽  

Abstract Objectives Establishing direct reference intervals (RIs) for pediatric patients is a very challenging endeavor. Indirectly determined RIs can address this problem by utilization of existing clinical laboratory databases. In order to provide better laboratory services to the local pediatric population, we established population-specific hematology RIs via data mining. Methods Our laboratory information system (LIS) was searched for pediatric blood counts of patients aged from 0 days to 18 years, performed from 1st of January 2018 until 31st of March 2021. In total, 27,554 blood counts on our SYSMEX XN-9000 were initially identified. After application of pre-defined exclusion criteria, 18,531 sample sets remained. Age- and sex-specific RIs were established in accordance with International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) and Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results When compared to pediatric RIs supplied by other authors, the RIs determined specifically for pediatric patients from Berlin and Brandenburg showed several relevant differences, especially with regard to white blood cell counts (WBCs), red blood cell counts (RBCs), red cell distribution widths (RDW) and platelet counts (PLTs) within the distinct age groups. Additionally, alterations to several published age-specific partitions had to be made, while new sex-specific partitions were introduced for WBCs and PLTs. Conclusions Generic RIs from textbooks, manufacturer information and medical publications – even from nationwide or multicenter studies – commonly used in many laboratories might not reflect the specifics of local patient populations properly. RIs should be tailored to the serviced patient population whenever possible. Careful data mining appears to be suitable for this task.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 203
I-Jung Tsai ◽  
Wen-Chi Shen ◽  
Chia-Ling Lee ◽  
Horng-Dar Wang ◽  
Ching-Yu Lin

Bladder cancer has been increasing globally. Urinary cytology is considered a major screening method for bladder cancer, but it has poor sensitivity. This study aimed to utilize clinical laboratory data and machine learning methods to build predictive models of bladder cancer. A total of 1336 patients with cystitis, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, uterus cancer, and prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Two-step feature selection combined with WEKA and forward selection was performed. Furthermore, five machine learning models, including decision tree, random forest, support vector machine, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and light gradient boosting machine (GBM) were applied. Features, including calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, urine ketone, urine occult blood, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and diabetes were selected. The lightGBM model obtained an accuracy of 84.8% to 86.9%, a sensitivity 84% to 87.8%, a specificity of 82.9% to 86.7%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 to 0.92 in discriminating bladder cancer from cystitis and other cancers. Our study provides a demonstration of utilizing clinical laboratory data to predict bladder cancer.

2022 ◽  
Noah Kojima ◽  
Matthew Brobeck ◽  
Vladimir Slepnev ◽  
Jeffrey D Klausner

Background: Despite effective means to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, the early treatment seeking behavior of those newly diagnosed with infection is not clear. Methods: We surveyed users of a national SARS-CoV-2 testing company to assess the frequency and correlates of early treatment seeking behavior for a positive test result. We recruited adults (18 years or older) who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR at a large clinical laboratory. To be eligible, individuals had to have a positive test result within 7 days of enrollment. Surveys were anonymous and voluntary. We collected data on demographic characteristics, general health care access and utilization, awareness of treatment for COVID-19, treatment seeking behavior, and treatments received. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated on StataSE. Results: Participants were surveyed from 3-7 January 2022: among the 15,991 who viewed a survey request, 7,647 individuals were eligible and provided responses. The median age of a respondent was 42 years (interquartile range: 32 to 54), 68.9% of respondents were women, and respondents represented 33 different states, districts, and territories. Among respondents, 23.1% reported they had sought treatment or medical advice for their current COVID-19 diagnosis. Of those who were very aware of treatment for COVID-19, 31.0% sought treatment versus 16.7% who were unaware (p-value< 0.001). The odds of treatment seeking behavior were higher for those that were contacted by a medical professional after their diagnosis (OR: 4.57 [95% CI: 3.89 to 5.37]), those with a primary doctor (OR: 2.94 [95% CI: 2.52 to 3.43]), those who self-measured their oxygen saturation (OR: 2.53 [95% CI: 2.25 to 2.84]), and those over 65 years of age (OR: 2.36 [95% CI: 2.02 to 2.76]). There was no difference in those seeking treatment based on heritage, ethnicity, prior COVID-19 diagnosis, state political affiliation, or vaccination status. The odds of seeking treatment were lower among men (OR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.78 to 0.99]) and those without insurance (OR: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.52 to 0.72]). The most common treatment locations were clinics and most common treatments were Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Zinc, Tylenol, and NSAIDs. Conclusion: More public outreach is needed to raise awareness of the benefits of treatment for COVID-19. We found that people who were more aware about treatment for COVID-19 were more likely to seek medical advice or therapy. Efforts to increase awareness might increase early treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increased outreach with treatment facilitation from medical professionals and/or public health staff to those with newly detected SARS-CoV-2 infections, particularly among those at higher-risk of complications, might also be helpful.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Maryam Najafinejad ◽  
Fatemeh Cheraghali ◽  
Bahman Aghcheli ◽  
Abdolhalim Rajabi ◽  
Leila Barati ◽  

The COVID-19 disease usually leads to mild infectious disease in children, but some develop serious complications. Here, we describe the characteristics of children with COVID-19 in northern Iran, the Golestan province. Ninety-one confirmed cases were enrolled in the study, aged 0–18 years. Demographic, clinical, comorbidity, laboratory, and radiological data were compared based on the disease severity (admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) or not) and disease outcome (recovered or deceased). Sixteen (17.5%) cases were hospitalized in ICU, and 8/91 (8.8%) deceased. Fever and cough were the most common clinical symptoms. Among all symptoms notified there were no significant differences between severe and milder cases, or between those who deceased and recovered. Failure to thrive (FTT), malignant disease and neurological disease were significantly more prevalent in severe cases as was frequently reported comorbidities. Laterality, ground-glass opacity, and lung consolidation were the most common findings in chest computed tomography. The data confirms that the COVID-19 disease has various presentations in children, and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings may help predict the development of severe forms of COVID-19 among children.

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